THE JESUIT RATIO STUDIORUM OF 1599

Translated into English,
with an Introduction and
Explanatory Notes


by


Allan P. Farrell, S.J.
University of Detroit


CONFERENCE OF MAJOR SUPERIORS OF JESUITS
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20036


1970


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
Letter of Transmission of the Ratio of 1599--
xii
  January 8, 1599
           
Translation of the Ratio Studiorum of 1599
           
Rules of the Provincial
1
    -- Rector
14
    -- Prefect of Studies
19
Common Rules of Professors of the Higher Faculties
25
  Rules of the Professor of Sacred Scripture
29
      -- Hebrew
32
      -- Scholastic Theology
33
      -- Cases of Conscience
37
      -- Philosophy
40
      -- Moral Philosophy
45
      -- Mathematics
46
Rules of the Prefect of Lower Studies
46
Rules for Written Examinations
57
Laws for Prizes
59
Common Rules for the Teachers of the Lower Classes
62
  Rules of the Teacher of Rhetoric
72
      -- Humanities
79
      -- Highest Grammar Class
84
      -- Middle Grammar Class
88
      -- Lowest Grammar Class
91
Rules of the Scholastics of the Society
95
Instruction for Those Engaged in the
  Two-Year Review of Theology
97
Rules for the Teacher’s Assistant or Beadle
99
Rules for Extern Students
101
Rules of the Academy
103
    -- Moderator of the Academy
105
    -- Academy of Theologians and
      Philosophers
106
    -- Moderator of the Academy of
      Theologians and Philosophers
109
    -- Academy of Students of Rhetoric
      and Humanities
110
    -- Academy of Students of the Grammar
      Classes
111
Notes to the Translation
113


INTRODUCTION

The Ratio Atgue Institutio Studiorum Societatis
Iesu
, here translated into English, with explanatory
notes, was the result of many years of planning and ex-
perimentation. Into its making went the best efforts
of a group of brilliant administrators and teachers,
the manifold influence of Renaissance theory and prac-
tice, particularly the influence of the University of
Paris, and the practical wisdom gained from prolonged
tests in a hundred Jesuit colleges in many countries.
Its progenitors were Father Jerome Nadal’s 1551 plan
for the college at Messina in Sicily, his later plan
called Ordo Studiorum, the Fourth Part of the Jesuit
Constitutions, written by Ignatius of Loyola, and the
substantial De Ratione et Ordine Studiorum Collegii
Romani
of Father James Ledesma. The Ratio was first
printed for private review in 1586, revised in 1591,
and given final form and official sanction in 1599.
A more modern experimental edition was published in
1832, but was never revised or officially approved.
Hence, when historians of education write about Jesuit
education, they invariably refer to the official Ratio
Studiorum
of 1599: the Order and Method of Studies in
the Society of Jesus.

An English translation of this 1599 edition, by
A. R. Ball, was published in 1933 in the McGraw-Hill
Education Classics under the title Saint Ignatius and
the Ratio Studiorum
, and edited by E. A. Fitzpatrick.
However, that publication has been out of print for
nearly thirty years, and is seldom to be found even in
university libraries.

The translation presented here is completely new,
based on the original text of 1599 and on G. M. Pachtler’s
reprint, which is accompanied by a German translation,
in Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticae Soc. J.
This work is to be found in Volume II of the series
Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica (Berlin: A. Hofmann,
1887), pp. 234-481.


We should say here that Jesuit education has
deserved a more accurate and impartial record in the
history of education than is usually accorded it in
most textbook histories. The generally unfavorable
judgment is owing in large measure to the fact that
earlier historians of education were unduly influ-
enced in their account of Western education by one
of the most thoroughly iased critics of the Jesuit
system, Gabriel Comparayé in his two-volume Histoire
Critique des Doctrines de l’Éducation en France depuis
le Seizième Siècle
, Paris, 1879, and translated into
English by W. H. Payne, under the title of History
of Pedagogy
, London, 1900. A more general explana-
tion is that the history of Jesuit education has been
based on second-hand sources, often borrowed by one
author from another, rather than on an acquaintance
with available original documents, such as the Spir-
itual Exercises
, the Fourth Part of the Constitutions
and the Ratio Studiorum.

A notable exception is Robert R. Rusk’s The
Doctrines of the Great Educators
, revised and en-
larged, Macmillan, 1957.
In his chapter on Loyola
(Ignatius of Loyola, Jesuit founder), Rusk gives am-
ple evidence of familiarity not only with the docu-
ments mentioned above, but with complementary docu-
ments and studies, such as those of Jouvancy, Petavius,
Pachtler, Corcoran, Charmot, Hughes, Schwickerath,
and Broderick. He quotes liberally from the Fourth
Part of the Constitutions and the Ratio Studiorum,
often, but not exclusively, availing himself of the
English translations in St. Ignatius and the Ratio
Studiorum, edited by E. A. Fitzpatrick. Worthy of
special notice is Rusk’s thoroughgoing analysis and
commentary on both the Constitutions and the several
editions of the Ratio. Toward the end of his analy-
sis (p. 81), he states:

  As more criticism than study has been de-
voted to this system by writers on the his-
tory of education, it is advisable inciden-
tally to enumerate some of the topics in
regard to which the Jesuits have anticipated
modern practice, and by implication to reply
to the unfounded criticisms of these writers.


ii


Rusk then discusses eight contributions which he
thinks that the Jesuits have made to educational the-
ory. First, they provided education with a uniform
and universal method. Second, Jesuit teachers, far
from being subordinated to method, played a principal
role in the system and were thoroughly trained for it.
Third, though from the beginning the Latin and Greek
classics were predominant in the curriculum, the use
of the mother tongue, the principles of mathematics,
and the methods of natural science, were given their
proper place when they proved to be of permanent value.
Fourth, "in retaining the drama as an educational in-
strument, the Jesuits anticipated the modern movement
represented by what is termed the dramatic method of
teaching history." Fifth, "in insisting on the speak-
ing of Latin they likewise anticipated the direct meth-
od of teaching the classics." Sixth, the Jesuits sub-
stituted supervision for compulsion and dissociated
punishment from teaching. Seventh, by promoting abler
students after only half a session in a grade, they
introduced a procedure now adopted by a number of mod-
ern school systems. Eighth, in Sacramental Confession
and Communion "the Society possesses powerful instru-
ments for the moral and religious education of the
pupil."

The Jesuit schools, whose pedagogical princi-
ples Rusk investigated so thoroughly, comprised a
large segment of European scholastic institutions.
Their growth between 1548 and 1773 was phenomenal.
From 1548, when the first Jesuit school was founded
at Messina in Sicily, to 1556, when Ignatius of Loyola,
the Jesuit founder and general, died, thirty-three
schools had been opened and six more were ready to
open. The countries then represented were Sicily,
Italy, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Bohemia, France and
Germany. By 1581 the number of schools had increased
to 150. When the official Ratio of 1599 was promul-
gated, there were 245 schools. This number rose to
441 in 1626, to 669 in 1749. At the latter date, in
France alone, there were ninety-two schools, enrolling
some 40,000 pupils. Meanwhile, the Jesuit system had
spread from Europe to India, Cuba, Mexico, and the
Philippines.


iii


During these years of growth in the number of
schools, enrollments also increased sharply. For
example, official records show:

Country School Year Enrollment
       
Portugal Evora 1585 1,400
    " Lisbon 1586 1,800
    " Coimbra 1582 1,600
       
France Billom 1563 1,600
    " Clermont 1586 1,500
       
Germany Cologne 1581 1,000
    " Treves 1581 1,000
       
Italy Roman College 1567 1,000
    1594 1,500


Jesuit schools in smaller towns averaged between 500
and 800, in the cities between 800 and 1,500. The
majority were secondary schools, but a good many of
them gradually added the faculty of arts, which, by
incorporating the classes of Humanities and Rhetoric,
was equivalent to the modern College of Arts and Sci-
ences. At that time there were few Jesuit universi-
ties. Four may be mentioned: in Spain, the univer-
sities of Gandia and of Coimbra were founded in 1549
and 1551 respectively, the Roman College in 1551, and
in France the University of Pont-a-Mousson in 1575.

It is a fair question to ask whether the gradu-
ates of these many schools and colleges distinguished
themselves in literature, science, mathematics, and
the learned professions. Gilbert Highet, who quali-
fied himself to answer the question by stating, "I
am not a Jesuit myself, or even a Roman Catholic,"
writes:

The success of Jesuit education is proved
by its graduates. It produced, first, a long
list of wise and learned Jesuit preachers,


iv


writers, philosophers, and scientists. Yet if
it had bred nothing but Jesuits, it would be
less important. Its value is that it proved
the worth of its principles by developing a
large number of widely different men of vast
talent: Corneille the tragedian, Descartes
the philosopher and mathematician, Bossuet and
Bourdaloue the orators, Moliere the comedian,
d’Urfè the romantic novelist, Montesquieu the
political philosopher, Voltaire the philosopher
and critic, who although he is regarded by the
Jesuits as a bad pupil is still not an unworthy
representative of their ability to train gifted
minds. The Art of Teaching, New York, Vintage
Books, 1955, pp. 198-199.

Highet could have extended his list of noted Jesuit alum-
ni by including Goldone the creator of modern Italian
comedy, Torquato Tasso the Italian poet and author of
Jerusalem Delivered, and Calderon de la Barca, the Span-
ish dramatist and poet. Father Porée, for long profes-
sor of rhetoric at Louis-Le-Grand in Paris, lived to
see nineteen of his former pupils inducted into the
French Academy.

The continuity of Jesuit educational history was
rudely broken on August 16, 1773, when Pope Clement XIV
issued a Brief of Suppression of the Society of Jesus.
The abolition of the Jesuit Order meant the closing of
546 schools in Europe and 123 schools in missionary ter-
ritories chiefly in Hispanic America and in India.
Frederick II of Prussia and Catherine II in White Russia
nullified the Brief of Suppression. Catherine asked the
Jesuits to continue their teaching. Thus the small band
of 200 Jesuits maintained their schools at Polotzk,
Onsza, Vitepsk, and Dunabourg. In 1804, at King Ferdi-
nand’s request, Pope Pius VII reinstated the Jesuits in
the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Between 1804 and 1814
several groups of former Jesuits in England, the United
States, France, and Ireland were permitted to affiliate
with the surviving Society in White Russia. The final
step was taken by Pope Pius VII when on August 7, 1814
he restored the Society of Jesus to its former status as
an Order in the universal Church, with all the rights,
privileges, and constitutions hitherto granted and ap-
proved.

v


At that date there were in existence five Jesuit
schools in White Russia, four in the Two Sicilies, one
in the United States (Georgetown), and a few more in
France. Progress in reviving the educational aposto-
late was exceedingly slow. The principal reasons were
the almost complete loss of property, which had been
confiscated by the States, the growing state control
of education in most European countries, and the loss
of large numbers of former Jesuits who had died or
grown old or assumed other occupations. Consequently
it was necessary for the Society to start building up
its members and its schools almost from scratch. By
1833 it had charge of only forty-five schools and seven-
teen seminaries. Its total membership was 2,495. It
was not until 1930 that the membership had built up
to what it had been prior to the suppression.

From 1930 on, however, the "new" Society of Jesus
began to achieve far-reaching developments in its mis-
sionary and educational activities. First, the number
of Jesuits consistently grew: to 26,293 in 1940, to
30,578 in 1950, and to 34,687 in 1960. Second, a sta-
tistical analysis by William J. Mehok, S.J., "Jesuit
Schools of the World, 1961," in the Jesuit Educational
Quarterly
, XXV, June, 1962, pp. 42-56, revealed that
in 1960 there were 4,059 Jesuit schools throughout the
world, with a total enrollment of 938,436. Father Mehok
then presented a geographical analysis of these statis-
tics as follows: In Africa there were 1,009 Jesuit
schools and 223,692 pupils, in Asia and Oceania 1,379
schools and 236,661 pupils, in North America 691 schools
and 257,777 pupils, in South America 378 schools and
87,991 pupils, in Europe 602 schools and 131,315 pupils.

Noteworthy in the statistics is the large number
of elementary schools which the Jesuits are conducting
today. According to the Ignatian Constitutions, Jesuits
were forbidden to open elementary schools or supply
teachers for them because of the lack of sufficient man-
power. But that prohibition referred to Europe, not to
foreign missions; for from the beginning it was a Jesuit
principle that schools were to be opened as soon and as
widely as possible in all missionary territories. In
modern times the remarkable growth of Jesuit missions

vi


in Africa, Asia, and even in Oceania has necessitated
the opening of very many mission schools, which begin
at the elementary or elementary-secondary level. This
does not mean that secondary schools, colleges and uni-
versities are not also growing and spreading, particu-
larly in India, the Philippines, various countries of
South America, and most notably in the United States,
where in 1968 there were fifty-five high schools with
37,811 students and twenty-eight colleges and univer-
sities with 150,884.

A question that may profitably be raised at this
point is where the official Ratio Studiorum of 1599
fits into the new age of the Society of Jesus. Before
attempting to answer that question, it should be noted
that the Ratio of 1599 rendered immediate and valuable
service for its own era by successfully guiding and gov-
erning hundreds of Jesuit schools in Europe, and not a
few in the Latin American colonies and in the Asiatic
provinces, for a hundred and fifty years. Moreover,
since the present Jesuit system takes its origins from
1599, it cannot be dismissed as wholly unrelated to
our more complex situation today. It would be illogi-
cal, however, to conclude that merely updating the old
Ratio would answer the needs of the twentieth century.
Such an updating was attempted in the experimental re-
vision of 1832, but after it was carefully examined by
the Jesuits of that time it was found to be inadequate.
In fact, it is very doubtful that a modern-day official
Ratio could be constructed, so various are the condi-
tions and requirements in the many countries in which
Jesuits are conducting schools.

We should now return to the question of what per-
tinence the Ratio may have for the new age of the So-
ciety of Jesus. A modern Jesuit author approaches an
answer when he states that “it may be possible to dis-
engage from the documentary sources of the Jesuit edu-
cational tradition certain key-categories or master
themes, rudimentary perhaps or barely implicit, which
constitute a portion of Christian educational theory
and retain significance for places, persons and times
very different from those of 1599." John W. Donohue,
S.J., Jesuit Education (Fordham University Press, 1963),
p. 69. In another place he says: "For Jesuit school-


vii


men, however, the experience and accumulated wisdom
of their predecessors is wonderfully instructive for
their own work" (ibid., p. 28). And again: "Certain
principles of sixteenth-century Jesuit education may
be applied to our contemporary school actualities but
they will usually require transposition into a new key"
(ibid., p. 121).

These statements warn us not to expect too much
from the past. Yet, Father Donohue comes nearer, on
occasion, to a more liberal recognition of traditional
principles and practices which have relevance for our
time. For instance, the rhetorical ideal of "Ciceronian
verbal grace" has a wider aim that "rests on the convic-
tion that the truly human man must possess both wisdom
and eloquence; must know something and be able to say
what he knows; must be able to think and to communicate”
(ibid., p. 70). Another instance: “It is therefore
quite defensible to conclude that developing the arts
of communication and eloquentia perfecta are still es-
sential tasks of the secondary school even though the
form and content of eloquence changes from epoch to
epoch and nation to nation” (ibid., p. 121).

Father Donohue then devotes considerable space
to describing the prelection, "the characteristic
tool" for bringing students to an understanding of the
materials and aims of study. After applying the pre-
lection to the classical authors and to philosophy, he
concludes: "It is clear that the basic pattern and
purpose of the prelection can and ought to be adapted
to all teaching and any subject. It is only too easy,
unfortunately, to neglect this work of preparing stu-
dents for individual study since it is always easier
to tell them what than to teach them how” (ibid., pp.
150-151).

Finally, it must suffice to summarize or list a
number of pedagogical principles derived from the
Ratio, which, with necessary adaptation, apply to Jes-
uit teaching everywhere. The aim of the prelection is
understanding. "After understanding," says Father
Donohue, "mastery is to be sought and this means stu-
dent activity--exercise and more exercise." The ac-


viii


tivity was diversified: disputations, debates, repe-
titions that were held daily, weekly, monthly and annu-
ally, written exercises in imitation of the author
being read, public correction of the exercises, ori-
ginal essays in the upper grades. But since success-
ful action calls for motivation, the Jesuits provided
contests within and between classes, awards, plays and
pageants, and academies. In sum, writes Father Donohue,

All these pedagogical principles are, then,
closely linked together. The learning product
sought is genuine growth which is conceived in
terms of abiding habits and skills. Habits are
generated not simply by understanding facts or
procedures but mastery which makes them one’s
own and at hand for ready use. Mastery is the
product of continual intellectual effort and
exercise but fruitful effort of this sort is
impossible without adequate motivation and a
human milieu (ibid., pp. 150-153).

Thus the answer to the question of what relevance
the Ratio of 1599 has for our age would seem to be that
it retains “significance for places, persons and times
very different from 1599.”

But what were the sources of the Ratio itself?
When the early Jesuit schools began to spread from
Italy, Spain and Portugal to France and Germany, claims
were made by several headmasters of rival schools, espe-
cially by Johann Sturm, headmaster at Strassburg, that
the Jesuits had copied their pedagogical practices. As
a matter of fact, however, when the manuscript of Quin-
tilian’s Institutio Oratoria was discovered at St. Gall
by the humanist Poggio in 1410, Quintilian soon became
the favorite source of most of the school programs in
the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries--at
Liege, Strassburg and elsewhere. This was prior to the
opening of the first Jesuit school. Ignatius of Loyola
and his early followers, on the other hand, took as
their chief authority the University of Paris, their
Alma Mater. Their preference for Paris resulted from
their interest, at that time, in the practice rather
than in the theory of education. The University of
Paris undoubtedly absorbed a great deal of its pedagogy


ix

from Quintilian or from humanist adaptations of Quin-
tilian, but it had reduced these ideas to order and
to practice. The early Jesuits were engaged in the
actual labor of the classroom and hence were looking
for specific and serviceable pedagogical guidance.
The success of their efficient and carefully organized
educational code, embodied eventually in the Ratio of
1599, may best be explained by acknowledging that they
did not merely resurrect and restore old ideas, but
impregnated them with their own distinctive spirit
and purpose, and subjected them to prolonged tests
based on personal knowledge and practical experience.
Though the result reflects the multiple influence of
other systems, it was not a slavish imitation of either
the University of Paris or of Quintilian.

There are four principal areas contained in the
Ratio Studiorum, namely, administration, curriculum,
method, and discipline. It begins with administration
by defining the function, interrelation, and duties of
such officials as the provincial, rector and prefects
of studies. It outlines a curriculum by placing in
their proper sequence and gradation courses of study
in theology, philosophy and the humanities. It sets
forth in detail a method of conducting lessons and
exercises in the classroom. It provides for disci-
pline by fixing for the students norms of conduct,
regularity and good order.

The following detailed analysis of the Ratio,
according to sets of rules, will illustrate these four
main divisions.

Allan P. Farrell, S.J.

July 21, 1970


x




An Analysis of the Ratio Studiorum of 1599
 
 I. A. Rules of the Provincial (1-40)
    B. Rules of the Rector (1-24)
* * * * *
II. C. Rules of the Prefect of M. Rules for the Scholastics of
         Studies (1-30)      the Society (1-11)
    D. Common Rules of the Professors N. Instruction for Those Engaged
         of the Higher Faculties (1-20)      in the Two-Year Review of
    E. Special Rules for Professors      Theology (1-14)
         the Higher Faculties O. Rules for the Teacher's As-
         a) Scripture (1-20)      sistant of Beadle (1-7)
         b) Hebrew (1-5) Q. Rules for the Academies (cf. below):
         c) Theology (1-14)      a) General Rules (1-12)
         d) Cases of Conscience (1-10)      b) Rules of the Prefect (1-5)
    F. Rules of the Professor of Philo-      c) Academy of Theology and
         sophy:           Philosophy (1-11)
         a) General Rules (1-8)      d) Moderator of the Academy
         b) Courses, Texts, etc. (9-20)           (1-4)
         c) Moral Philosphy (1-4)
         d) Mathematics (1-3)
* * * * *
III. G. Rules of the Prefect of Lower P. Rules for Extern Students (1-15)
          Studies (1-50) Q. Rules for the Academies (cont’d):
     H. Rules for the Written Examina-      e) Academy of Rhetoric and
          tions (1—1l)           Humanities (1—7)
     J. Laws for Prizes (1-13)      f) Academy of Grammar Students
     K. Common Rules for the Teachers of           (1-8)
          the Lower Classes (1-50)
     L. Special Rules for the Teachers
          of the Lower Classes:
a) Rhetoric (1—20)
b) Humanities (1-10)  
c) Grammar I (1—10)  
d) Grammar II (1-10)  
e) Grammar III (1—9)  


xi


RATIO STUDIORUM, 1599


Letter of Transmission

A comprehensive program for our course of studies
began to take shape about fourteen years ago. Work on
it has now been completed and copies of its final form
are being sent to the various provinces of the Society.

On account of its great potential value for our
schools, Our Very Reverend Father General had hoped
that the program would have been completed and imple-
mented long before now. This, however, proved to be
impossible. The undertaking was so ambitious and was
fraught with so many problems that it was felt to be
unwise to put it in force until the provinces would
have an opportunity to study its implications and sug-
gest improvements. Father General decided that it
would never do to impose a set of regulations on the
whole Society until every effort had been made to in-
sure willing acceptance on the part of all concerned.

The six priests to whom the task of formulating
a program of studies was entrusted spent long and ardu-
ous years in research and discussion. They finally
completed their work, and the results were forwarded
to all provinces of the Society to be weighed and eval-
uated by our teachers and educational experts. These
men were requested to examine the document for the pur-
pose of noting and eliminating defects or of introduc-
ing improvements. They were then to make a report
expressing their views on the plan as a whole and to
explain the principles which supported these views.

All of the provinces cooperated eagerly and
resolutely, and forwarded their criticisms and their
suggestions to Rome. There the chief professors of
the Roman College and a special committee of three
Fathers edited these reports and submitted their find-
ings to Father General. In conference with the Fathers
Assistant, he carefully scrutinized the new version of
the plan of studies, approved it, and forwarded copies


xii


to all the provinces with orders that it was to be
scrupulously followed.

Father General reminded the Provincials that
since new procedures to be reliable, must be tested
in the light of actual experience, they should note the
day-by-day results of the new plan and make a report to
Rome. He himself would then be in a position to put
the finishing touches to the work and send it out with
the stamp of his final approval.

When the Provincials came to Rome for the Fifth
General Congregation, they brought with them the
memoranda of defects which daily experience in the
classroom had detected in the second draft of the Ratio.
The chief complaint was that the new plan was too cum-
bersome. Hence it was decided to face the huge task
of reviewing the whole project. This required that
the members of the Roman committee study the reasoning
which prompted the various suggestions, that they pon-
der well what decision to make in each instance, and
finally that they endeavor to reduce the whole docu-
ment to smaller and more manageable dimensions. Fin-
ally the task was completed and we have good reason to
hope that the final version will meet with the approval
of all.

This revised edition of the Ratio which is now
being sent out is to supersede all previous experimen-
tal editions and is to be followed faithfully by all
members of the Society. It is therefore incumbent on
all our teachers to carry out all its provisions. I
am quite convinced that if the members of our Society
realize how much this project means to our Father Gen-
eral, they will comply cheerfully with his wishes.

Since responsibility for the success of this
Ratio Studiorum lies squarely on the shoulders of su-
periors, Father General urges them to make every effort
to secure from their subjects ready and complete dedi-
cation to this program which breathes the spirit of
our Constitutions and promises to be of untold advan-
tage to our students.

Rome
James Dominic
January 8, 1599 Secretary


xiii



RULES OF THE PROVINCIAL 1


1. It is the principal ministry of the Society
of Jesus to educate youth in every branch of knowledge
that is in keeping with its Institute. The aim of our
educational program is to lead men to the knowledge
and love of our Creator and Redeemer.2 The provincial
should therefore make every effort to ensure that the
various curricula in our schools produce the results
which our vocation demands of us.

2. He should not only strongly recommend this
work to the rector, but he should assign to him as pre-
fect of studies a man thoroughly versed in literature*
and possessed of the enthusiasm and good judgment which
such an office requires. The function of the prefect
will be to assist the rector in organizing and super-
vising the course of studies. He is to have jurisdic-
tion over all professors and students. This applies
not only to students who dwell in the main building
but also to those who live in various residence halls.
The supervisors of these residence halls are also sub-
ject to the authority of the prefect in all matters
which pertain to studies.

3. If, however, owing to the size of the school
and its varied arrangement of classes, one prefect
does not seem sufficient for the proper management of
the school, the provincial should appoint a second,
subordinate to the general prefect, to direct the
lower studies. And should circumstances require it,
let him appoint a third prefect to preside over disci-
pline.

4. Long before the opening of classes the pro-
vincial should make a careful inventory of his avail-
able teachers. He should classify them according to

________________________


* The 1832 Ratio reads "literature and the sciences."

 


2


ability, devotedness, and interest in the progress of
students, and this not only in class work but in all
academic achievement.

5. Great attention should be given to promoting
the study of Sacred Scripture. The provincial will do
this most effectively if he chooses for this field men
who are not only proficient in languages (a prerequi-
site), but are also well versed in theology and other
sciences, in history and allied branches of learning,
and as far as possible, practiced in the arts of com-
munication.3

6. Students of theology are to attend the course
in Sacred Scripture for two years, usually in the sec-
ond and third year of theology. Where there are two
professors of theology, the lectures are to be given
daily for a forty-five minute period; where there are
three professors, a shorter daily lecture may be given,
or a longer lecture every other day.

7. The class in Hebrew should if possible be
taught by the professor of Holy Scripture. At least
the teacher should be a good theologian. It is de-
sirable that this man be proficient in Greek, because
it is the language of the New Testament and of the
Septuagint. Similarly he should have command of the
Caldaic and Syriac languages because of their impor-
tance in the exegesis of many passages in the Canoni-
cal Books.4

8. Students of theology are to pursue the study
of Hebrew for a year, usually in the second or third
year of theology. Only someone judged to be entirely
unfit for this study should be exempt from it. More-
over, as the Constitutions direct, the provincial ought
to decide who are to be chosen for advanced studies in
Hebrew and have them devote additional time to it dur-
ing the two years prescribed for the review of theolo-
gy. When possible, they should be helped by means of
a special academy or seminar, at least during the vaca-
tions.

9. #1. The provincial should see to it that the
curriculum in theology is completed in four years, as


3


prescribed by the Constitutions. It should be taught
by two regular professors, or, if this is impossible,
by three, depending on the practice in the several
provinces. If there are three professors, the third
lecture should be given on moral theology, or should
explicitly and thoroughly cover moral questions which
teachers of dogmatic theology are wont to touch upon
only lightly if at all. Our scholastics are to attend
the moral course for two years and the course in Sacred
Scripture for another two years.

#2. The provincial is to be especially careful
that no one be appointed to teach theology who is not
well disposed to the teaching of St. Thomas. Those
who do not approve of his doctrine or take little in-
terest in it, should not be allowed to teach theology.

10. At the beginning of the fourth year of the-
ology, after taking counsel with the rector, the pre-
fect of studies, the professors and his own consultors,
the provincial should select some of our scholastics
for a biennium of uninterrupted private study and re-
view, as prescribed in the Constitutions. Those se-
lected must be solidly grounded in virtue and dis-
tinguished for their talent. During this biennium
(concerning which a special instruction will be given
in another place)5 public defenses may be held, at the
superior’s discretion, and where it is the custom some
may be advanced, on the authority of the general, to
the doctor’s or master’s degree.

11. Where it is customary to confer degrees
publicly, the Constitutions are to be strictly adhered
to. No one shall be promoted unless he has defended
questions taken not only from theology but also from
important parts of Sacred Scripture. The ceremonies
accompanying the conferring of degrees may follow local
practice so long as this does not conflict with the
Constitutions.

12. In a college where there is a scholasticate
of the Society,6 the provincial should appoint two
professors who together will explain over a two-year
period the subject matter of moral theology. If only
one professor is appointed, he should give two lectures
daily.


4


13. Twice a week in professed houses7 and once
or twice a week in the colleges, as the provincial may
decide, priests of the Society are to hold a discus-
sion of cases of conscience. This is to be done whe-
ther there are lectures on moral theology in these
colleges or not. One of the priests, appointed by the
provincial as well qualified, should act as moderator.
He should read and follow the rules laid down for the
professor of moral theology which govern the procedures
of this discussion.

14. These cases of conscience are also to be
held in the major colleges, particularly for all stu-
dents of theology, whether there be two professors of
moral theology, or only one, or none at all. This dis-
cussion, however, is to take place only once a week.

15. Students of moral theology and priests who
regularly or occasionally hear confessions are not to
be exempt from these discussions. An exception is to
be made for professors of theology and philosophy and
others whom the superior may see fit to excuse. The
superior himself should seldom be absent and then only
for serious reasons.

16. Save in case of urgent need, professors of
philosophy must have completed both the course in the-
ology and the graduate biennium so that their teaching
may have a firmer foundation and better prepare the
mind for theology. Teachers of philosophy who show
themselves too inclined toward new doctrines or too
liberal in their views should certainly be removed
from teaching.

17. The curriculum in philosophy should be com-
pleted in three years but not in a shorter time for our
scholastics. Where there are extern students8 only,
the length of the course may be left to the provincial’s
judgment, but wherever possible one group of students
should complete the course and another group begin it
each year.

18. The length of time to be given to the study
of humanities and rhetoric cannot be strictly deter-
mined. It belongs to the superior to decide how much



5


time each student should devote to these subjects.
Still, none of our scholastics is to be sent to philo-
sophy before he has devoted two years to the study of
rhetoric, unless he be judged excused by reason of age
or aptitude or other impediment. But if any have such
ability as to give promise of becoming eminent in these
literary studies, it might be profitable for them to
spend a third year in laying a more solid foundation.

19. #1. In the course of their philosophical
studies our students are to be thoroughly examined
toward the end of each year by appointed examiners.
The rector, and if possible even the provincial, should
be present. No one is to be advanced from the first to
the second year, nor from the second to the third, un-
less he has shown moderate ability in understanding the
subject matter of the lectures and is able to demon-
strate this understanding by proofs. To be promoted
to the curriculum in scholastic theology, that is, to
the four-year course, he must surpass mediocrity by
being able to defend his knowledge against objections.
In an exceptional case, an individual who does not
measure up to this latter standard, but has given evi-
dence of exceptional gifts for governing or for preach-
ing, may on this account be promoted by the provincial
to the course in scholastic theology; but the provin-
cial has no authority to make an exception for any
other reason.

#2. In this matter of making exceptions, which
is of great moment, and so is to be determined only
after careful thought for God’s greater glory, the
provincial should pay special attention to rules forty-
nine and fifty-six of his office,10 and should give
greatest weight to the character and personality of
the person in question.

#3. Students of theology should likewise be ex-
amined toward the end of each year. No one is to be
advanced to the next year who has not in the judgment
of the examiners achieved better than average success.
Exception may be made for those who do not measure up
to this standard but who possess outstanding talents
of another kind, as noted above.


6


#4. If in the course of studies any are found
to be unsuited for philosophy or theology, they should
be assigned either to the study of moral theology or
to teaching,11 as the provincial judges best.

#5. Any who before entering our Society have com-
pleted the entire course of philosophy, or a part of it,
or even a part of theology, are similarly to be tested
by examination to determine their status in these stud-
ies.

#6. In the examinations which determine whether
students of philosophy and theology are to advance to
the next higher year, the examiners are to vote in se-
cret. The decisions of the examiners, together with
their written ballots, are to be recorded in a book
designed for this purpose. The examiners are to keep
the results of the examinations secret.

#7. Should a student obtain only a mediocre
grade in the final philosophy examination or in the
annual examinations in theology, the decision of the
examiners is to stand. If, however, in the judgment
of the provincial’s consultors and other experienced
men (whose advice is to be sought) the student pos-
sesses special qualifications for governing or for
preaching, it is for the provincial to determine what
action is to be taken for the greater glory of God and
the good of our Society. If he decides that the stu-
dent in question is not to continue his studies, he
should note it in the book of records indicated above.

#8. The provincial, together with his consultors
and other competent men who are acquainted with the
students and whose judgment can be relied upon, should
reflect carefully on what particular ability for gov-
erning or for preaching can be expected of those who
wish to enter the four-year course of theology, al-
though they have demonstrated only passable competence
in philosophy. The same procedure should be followed
in regard to those who wish to remain in the four-year
course of theology despite their mediocre progress.

#9. The provincial should not stretch his au-
thority in granting concessions to those whose lack


7


of humility, piety, and self-denial seem to mark them
as poor risks.

#10. Toward the end of the fourth year of theo-
logical studies a final examination of at least two
hours shall be given to each student for the purpose
of determining whether or not he may be advanced to
the "profession."12 The subject matter of this exam-
ination shall consist of topics chosen from the princi-
pal divisions of philosophy and theology. To qualify
for the "profession," the candidate must be judged
fully capable of teaching both philosophy and theology.
Should an individual fall short of this standard, but
possess such a notable gift for governing or preaching
that it should be taken into account, the case must be
referred to the general. It is also for the general
to decide when exceptions are to be made in virtue of
the twenty-ninth decree of the sixth General Congrega-
tion for any who may have extraordinary talent for the
humanistic studies or for the Indian languages.13

#11. In the examination to determine who are
qualified to receive the profession of four vows, the
votes shall be cast in secret. Doubtful votes are to
be disregarded. The examiners are bound by oath not
only to keep their votes secret but also to base their
decision impartially on the knowledge and proficiency
of those being examined.

#12. Each examiner shall send his signed vote
directly to the provincial and to the general. That
addressed to the provincial is to be marked "Personal."
The provincial is to record the votes, omitting the
names of the examiners, in a book kept for that purpose.
He should preserve such secrecy in this matter that not
even his own assistant will know how the examiners
voted, and hence he should burn the letters of the
examiners as soon as he has recorded their votes.

#13. In every seminary, both for philosophy
and for theology, there should be at least four examiners
appointed by the general to conduct the examinations
described above. Wherever it is possible these exam-
iners should be other than the professors who taught



8


those who are to be examined. If one of the examiners
dies or is prevented from being present at the exam-
inations, the provincial is to appoint others who will
be bound by the same regulations of the oath with re-
spect to the final examination.

#14. In regard to those who enter the Society
with the degree of Doctor of Laws and Doctor of Canon
Law, the prescriptions of the Constitutions, Part V,
Ch. II, no. 2, B, are to be observed.14 If any enter
with the degree of Doctor of Theology and there is any
doubt about their proficiency, they are to be examined
like the rest. Unless they demonstrate more than or-
dinary ability, they are not to be admitted to the pro-
fession of the four vows.

20. In the second year of philosophical study
all students are to attend a course in mathematics for
a period of about forty-five minutes daily. Those who
show an aptitude and bent for this discipline should be
given an opportunity to pursue it further under private
instruction after completing the general course.

21. #1. The number of grades in the lower stud-
ies (omitting the primary grades for reasons given in
the Constitutions, Fourth Part, Ch. XII, C.)15 is not
to exceed five, one in rhetoric, one in humanities, and
three in grammar.

#2. These grades are to be so precisely articu-
lated as to preclude being combined or increased in
number. Besides, to increase their number would entail
an unnecessary addition of teachers and prolong the time
required for completing these studies.

#3. If there are fewer than five classes, the
five grades are not to be altered; rather one class may
have two sections, each corresponding to one of the five
grades, in the manner prescribed in the eighth rule of
the Prefect of Lower Studies.

#4. Whenever there are fewer than five classes,
the higher grades (rhetoric and humanities) should be
retained as far as possible and the lower grades dropped.



9


#5. When it is said that there should be only
three grammar classes and not more than a total of five
lower classes, this is to be understood as referring,
not to the number of classes and teachers, but rather
to the number of grades, as has just been described.
For if the number of pupils is too large for one teach-
er to handle, the class may be divided (with the gen-
eral’s permission) into two sections, but in such a
way that each will have the same grade, lessons, method,
and time schedule.

#6. This sectioning of classes, however, need
not be carried put except in places where the Society’s
complete course of studies is offered, or where the
conditions in the founding charter of the school demand
it; otherwise the Society may become unduly burdened.

22. In order to preserve a knowledge and appre-
ciation of the classical literatures and to provide a
reserve of men for teaching them, the provincial should
endeavor to have in his province at least two or three
who are eminent in these literatures and in eloquence.
He will accomplish this by setting aside for special
studies a few who have a gift and love for these disci-
plines, and who have satisfactorily completed the other
studies of the Society. By their devoted efforts these
men will be able in turn to create a class of good
teachers who will spread throughout a province.

23. The provincial shall see to it that our
teachers use the grammar of Emmanuel Alvarez.16 If in
some of our schools it is thought that his method is
too detailed and refined for the boys to master, the
teachers should use the Roman grammar or, with the gen-
eral’s approval, prepare a similar grammar, preserving,
however, all the force and exactness of the precepts of
Alvarez.


24. Provision should be made to have as many
permanent teachers of grammar and rhetoric as possible.
This can be done if the provincial assigns to this work
men who have completed their moral and dogmatic theology
and who in his judgment are especially qualified for
this type of work. He should encourage them to devote
themselves entirely to this apostolate which is so bene-
ficial in the service of God.

 



10


25. It will be advantageous to receive into the
Society men who seem specially fitted for such work,
and who, either on account of their age or aptitude,
will not be able to make progress in more abstruse stud-
ies. The condition of their admission will be their
willingness to dedicate their whole life to the service
of God by teaching grammar or the humanities. The pro-
vincial should note this fact in his record book. Either
prior to teaching or after having taught for some years,
as seems better, they may study moral theology, be or-
dained priests, and then return to this same work. They
are not to be removed from it without serious reason and
the advice of others. Occasionally, however, the pro-
vincial may decide that because of fatigue they should
have a change from this occupation for a year or two.

26. By that same token, the provincial is not to
excuse our scholastics from teaching grammar or humani-
ties,17 unless on account of age or other reasons dif-
ferent arrangements seem more suitable. He must take
care, however, that those who show exceptional talent
for preaching are not kept too long in teaching litera-
ture or even philosophy and theology, lest they take up
preaching only after their vitality has been sapped by
years in the classroom.

27. At the end of the philosophical curriculum,
the provincial should choose one, two, or three, or
more scholastics according to the size of the class,
who give promise of greater competence than others, and
send them on to theology. However, upon completion of
their theological studies and the third year of proba-
tion,18 he may employ them, if it seems necessary or
advisable, in teaching grammar or the humanities.

28. Scholastics, who are destined for the study
of philosophy but have not completed it, should not be
sent to teach unless there is a dearth of those who have
finished that course.

29. He should also see that scholastics begin
teaching with a class below that which they are pre-
pared to teach. In this way they can advance each
year to a higher grade with the greater part of their
pupils.


11


30. In order that teachers may be well prepared
for their work when they enter the classroom, it is
very important that they have practice sessions under
expert guidance. It is strongly recommended that the
rector diligently attend to this in the manner described
in his ninth rule.19

31. In the colleges, particularly the larger
ones, where the student body is more numerous, a suffi-
cient number of confessors should be appointed so that
it will not be necessary for all to go to one confes-
sor. For this reason, extraordinary confessors are
to be appointed at various times in order to afford
penitents greater freedom.

32. The provincial should give the colleges,
especially the smaller ones, a sufficient supply of
lay brothers,20 so that the rector will not have to
employ the professors and students in domestic work.

33. In order to provide needed books for our
teachers, the provincial shall assign an annual revenue
from the college funds or from some other source for
building up the library. This revenue may under no
circumstances be diverted to other uses.

34. The provincial must conscientiously take
every precaution to keep out of our schools works of
the poets and any other books which may be harmful to
character and morals, unless everything objectionable
in matter and style has been expunged.21 If, as in the
case of Terence, this is impossible, it will be better
not to read them at all than to expose our pupils to
spiritual harm.

35. In places where the time schedule of classes
varies at different seasons of the year, the provincial
should determine for the entire year the hours for the
beginning and ending of classes. Once established,
this calendar is to be faithfully observed. He should
not readily allow the weekly holiday to be postponed
or anticipated, and he should require that the schedule
of class days and holidays be strictly followed.


12


36. A nice balance should be maintained between
study time and recreation periods. Hence, no extra
holidays should be introduced and those established by
custom are to be faithfully observed. The following
regulations are to be carried out regarding vacations.

37. #1. The annual vacation for students in
higher studies should last at least a month and not
longer than two months. The rhetoric class should have
a month’s vacation; unless university custom decrees
otherwise, the class of humanities three weeks; the
higher grammar class two weeks, and the other classes
only one week.

#2. Feast days (which ought to be reduced rather
than increased in number) should be definitely estab-
lished for each region or country according to prevail-
ing custom, and then published officially.

#3. The higher faculties should have vacation
from the vigil of the Nativity to the feast of Circum-
cision; the lower classes from noon of the vigil of
the Nativity to the feast of the Holy Innocents.

#4. Where it is the custom no class is had from
Quinquagesima till Ash Wednesday, but all the profes-
sors shall hold class on Ash Wednesday afternoon.

#5. In the higher classes there will be vacation
from Palm Sunday until Low Sunday; in the lower classes
from Wednesday noon of Holy Week till Easter Tuesday.

#6. In the higher classes there will be no class
from the vigil of Pentecost until the following Tues-
day; in the lower classes from the noon of the vigil
till Tuesday. There is to be the usual Thursday holi-
day.

#7. On the day before the feast of Corpus
Christi both lower and higher classes will be free dur-
ing the afternoon only. On the feast of All Souls only
the morning is free.



13


#8. Further, on days when classes are held only
in the lower schools, no lessening of the regular time
schedule is to be allowed.

#9. If at times, owing to public pilgrimages,
classes cannot be held in the morning, they should at
least be held in the afternoon, and, where the custom
permits, classes should meet even in the morning of
Rogation days.

#10. At least one day of every week is to be set
aside as a holiday. However, when two feast days fall
within the same week, there should be no other holiday,
unless this happens rather frequently and the feasts fall,
one on Monday, the other on Saturday. Then another free
day may be allowed. Should one feast day fall within a
week, say on a Wednesday or a Thursday, that day and no
other is to be free. But should the feast day fall on
a Monday or a Saturday, a holiday is to be granted on
Wednesday also. Finally, if a feast falls on a Tuesday
or a Friday and no sermon is scheduled for that day, so
that it may be given to suitable recreation, there is
to be no further holiday that week; but if the day can-
not be given over to recreation, then a holiday is to
be allowed on Wednesday or Thursday.

#11. In the higher classes the weekly recreation
day will be entirely free. In the lower classes, how-
ever, class will be held in the morning, for an hour
and a half in rhetoric and for two hours in the other
classes. The afternoon is free for all students. Begin-
ning, however, in June, the entire day is free for all.

38. In order to ensure abundant success for the
Society’s teaching apostolate to the greater glory of
God, the provincial must see to it that both superiors
and subjects follow with perfect fidelity their own par-
ticular rules found in this Ratio Studiorum.

39. In view of differences in places, times, and
persons,22 there are bound to be certain variations in
the order and time schedule of studies, in the holding
of repetitions, disputations, and other exercises, as



14


well as in vacations. Therefore, if the provincial thinks
that in his province some special arrangement will make
for better progress in studies, he should refer the mat-
ter to the general so that adjustments may be approved
which will satisfy his needs, but in such wise that they
will conform as nearly as possible to the general plan
of our studies.

40. Finally, the provincial should consider as
especially committed to his charge and care all that is
laid down in the rules for the professors of the lower
classes concerning piety and good conduct and the teach-
ing of Christian doctrine, as well as what is prescribed
in the rules common to all teachers concerning religious
duty and moral training: for these touch directly on the
good of souls and are repeatedly recommended in the Con-
stitutions.

* * * * *

RULES OF THE RECTOR


1. The purpose of the Society in conducting col-
leges and universities is two-fold: First, she wants
to equip her members with a good liberal education and
with other skills required in her ministry, and secondly
she wants to provide them with an opportunity to share
with students in the classroom the fruits of their train-
ing. The rector’s chief concern should be the spiritual
development of the young men committed to his care, but
he should make every effort to achieve the goals which
the Society has in mind in founding and conducting
schools.

2. He will have a prefect of studies to assist
him in the administration of the curriculum, and he shall
delegate to him all the authority which he considers
necessary for the right conduct of that office.



15


3. He shall so manage and regulate his other
responsibilities as to be able to encourage and promote
all the forms of literary projects in the school. He
must occasionally visit the classes, including the
lower ones. He shall frequently attend the private and
public disputations in theology and philosophy. He
should observe whether these various scholastic exer-
cises produce the desired results. If they are ineffec-
tive, he should discover the reasons.

4. He should not excuse anyone from attending
the disputations or repetitions, thus giving the stu-
dents to understand that he attaches great importance
to these exercises.23 He should likewise prevent stu-
dents from engaging in pursuits which may interfere with
their studies.

5. Those who are engaged in the graduate biennium
of theology24 are not to be assigned by the rector to
preach in churches or convents of nuns except rarely
and with the provincial’s approval.

6. They may, however, substitute for the regular
teachers of philosophy or theology who chance to be ab-
sent. They may likewise, if there is need, take the
place of the professors in presiding over the repetitions
and disputations conducted within the college. If the
provincial consents, they may for a time even teach
philosophy or theology.

7. The rector shall provide for the formation of
study groups (academies) in Hebrew and Greek among the
scholastics. Members of such groups should meet to prac-
tice these languages two or three times a week at a
stated time, possibly during the recreation periods. By
thus becoming proficient in them, they will preserve the
knowledge of these languages and maintain for them a po-
sition of honor in our Society and with the general pub-
lic.

8. He shall take care that at home our scholas-
tics keep up the practice of speaking Latin.25 Excep-
tion may be made only on vacation days and during recre-
ation periods, but even at these times the practice may
be retained in certain places if the provincial thinks



16


it advisable. The rector shall also see to it that when
our scholastics who are still in their studies write to
other scholastics they shall do so in Latin. Moreover,
two or three times a year, on the occasion of some spe-
cial festivity, such as the beginning of a new academic
year or the renewal of vows, students of philosophy and
theology should compose verses and display them in pub-
lic.

9. To make sure that the teachers of the lower
classes do not enter upon teaching as raw recruits, the
rector of the college which supplies masters of classi-
cal literature and of granunar shall, toward the end of
their studies, select an experienced professor and have
those who are about to begin teaching meet with him for
an hour three times a week, to acquire pedagogical tech-
nique. They shall take turns in giving the prelection,
in dictating, in writing, in correcting, and in perform-
ing the other duties of a good teacher.26

10. It may happen that scholastics of the Society
who are studying rhetoric and humanities do not attend
public classes or, when they do, they may find that the
instructor is too overburdened to do justice to both lay
students and scholastics. In such circumstances the
rector shall assign some other capable teacher to give
our scholastics private instruction and exercises at
home according to the directions given in the rules for
the professor of rhetoric.

11. It is likewise for the rector to see that our
students of rhetoric occasionally write and deliver at
dinner or in the school auditorium Latin or Greek ora-
tions or verses on some subject which will be of spiritu-
al benefit and inspiration to students of the college
and to externs. He shall be careful that other academic
exercises recommended in the Constitutions be not ne-
glected.

12. Wherever possible, our boarding students
should study rhetoric for a year before they take up the
study of philosophy. Their parents should be shown how
advantageous this is. Day students should be urged to
do the same, but are not to be compelled if they cannot



17


be persuaded to follow this advice. Nevertheless, should
very young students, from whom disturbance more than prog-
ress may be expected, wish to study philosophy, they may
be treated as the Constitutions (Part IV, ch. 17, D) pro-
vide in the case of those who are unwilling to bind them-
selves with a promise to observe the Constitutions or to
enter their names for matriculation.27

13. Tragedies and comedies,28 which are to be pro-
duced only rarely and in Latin, must have a spiritual and
edifying theme. Whatever is introduced as an interlude
must be in Latin and observe propriety. No female make-
up or costume is to be permitted.

14. Prizes may be distributed publicly once a year
provided their cost is borne by prominent persons and is
kept moderate in proportion to the number of students and
the status of the college. The donors of prizes should
receive recognition at the distribution ceremony. It is
the rector’s duty to see that in preparing for the com-
petition the students do not fall behind in their stud-
ies or develop undesirable attitudes.

15. The rector shall see to it that the convoca-
tion address at the beginning of the new school year is
delivered by one of the more distinguished members of the
faculty.

16. He shall see to the observance of the rule of
the librarian which directs that copies of literary work
written and displayed within the college and outside by
members of the Society--dialogues, addresses, verses, and
works of a similar nature--be preserved in the archives.
It is for the prefect of studies or other competent
judges to select the papers to be thus preserved.

17. He shall instruct the librarian not to depart
from the directions of the prefect of studies in regard
to the circulation of books.

18. Every month, or at least every other month,
the rector shall call a meeting of the teachers of all
classes below logic, at which both prefects of studies
should be present; and from time to time he shall call



18


a meeting of the other professors, at which the prefect
of higher studies should be present. At these confer-
ences some of the rules for the teachers of the lower
studies should be read, and also some that are common
to all teachers, especially those pertaining to disci-
pline and piety, and then some of the rules that are
special to the teachers of the individual classes. He
shall make it clear to the teachers that they are free
to propose problems that may have arisen in following
the rules or any lapse in their observance.

19. The lower classes must have a weekly holiday,
either for an entire day or at least for the afternoon,
depending on the custom of the region.

20. The rector should strive, with religious
charity, to stimulate enthusiasm in the teachers for
their work, and should see to it that they be not over-
burdened with non-academic chores. He should pay par-
ticular attention in their regard to what is prescribed
in the twenty-fifth rule of his office.29

21. He should consider whether, in addition to
the weekly spiritual talk given by the teachers, another
should be given every month or two by some older priest,
using for the purpose a large classroom or hall, where
the lower classes can all be accommodated. He should
likewise consider whether it would be useful for the
prefect of studies or some one else to visit the classes
periodically in order to give the students practical ad-
vice suited to their needs.

22. When the provincial appoints an assistant to
the prefect of lower studies, he may be called prefect
of the hall. His responsibilities are set down in the
Rules of the Prefect of Lower Studies, in rule 2 and in
rules 37 to the end, which concern discipline. It may
also be thought well to have him perform the duties out-
lined in rules 9 to 13 which have to do with the exam-
ination of new students.

23. The rector shall see to the establishment in
his college of the Sodality of the Annunciation affili-
ated to that of the Roman College.30 Students who are
not enrolled in the Sodality are not eligible for admis-


19


sion to the various literary academies, unless the rec-
tor sees fit to make an exception. Exercises of the
Sodality or of an academy are not to be scheduled at a
time when sermons or lectures are being given in the
college church.

24. Finally, the rector shall consult the provin-
cial and diligently carry out what he shall prescribe
concerning vacations, degrees, those who are to be se-
lected for a biennium in theology, and similar matters.


                        * * * * *

               RULES OF THE PREFECT OF STUDIES

1. The function of the prefect of studies31 is
to act as general assistant to the rector in properly
organizing and directing our schools according to the
amount of authority delegated to him by the rector, so
that those who attend our schools will, to the greater
glory of God, make the greatest possible progress in de-
velopment of character, literary skills, and learning.

2. Where the office of Chancellor32 in a college
is distinct from that of the prefect of studies, it is
for the provincial (keeping in mind the customs and
statutes of the college in question) to determine which
of the following rules apply to both alike and which
are peculiar to one or the other.

3. The prefect of studies shall neither change
nor dispense from the directives and regulations con-
tained in the system of studies, but if need for a change
should arise, he shall have recourse to the superior.

4. It is the duty of the prefect of studies to
familiarize himself with the Ratio Studiorum and see



20


that students and teachers observe its prescriptions,
particularly those which have to do with the teaching
of St. Thomas in theology and the rules which govern
the selection of views to be held in philosophy. In
this latter he should be doubly vigilant where there is
question of a defense of philosophical theses and above
all when the theses are to be printed.

5. He shall remind the professors of theology,
of philosophy, and of moral, especially those who tend
to delay over their subject matter, that they should
keep advancing steadily so as to cover the matter as-
signed them each year.

6. He shall preside at all disputations which
the professors of theology or philosophy attend. He
shall signal the end of the disputation and shall so
proportion the time that each will have an opportunity
to take part. He shall not allow any problem which
comes up for discussion to be so hashed and rehashed
that it will be no better understood in the end than
at the start. After allowing for debate, he shall ask
the presiding officer to give a succinct and final ex-
planation. He himself should not give the solution,
but rather should direct the give-and-take of the dis-
putation. He will do this with greater dignity by not
joining in the argument, though this is sometimes proper,
but by asking questions to bring out the precise point
at issue.

7. He shall remind the superior in good time to
consult with the professors and choose the students
who are to defend theses, either on the whole of the-
ology or on any part of it. These comprehensive dis-
putations, usually called “acts,”33 will be presented,
not by those engaged in the two-year review of theology,
but by theology students of the fourth-year class.
Third-year students may be chosen if the fourth-year
class is very small. The "acts" are to be held even
when members of the Society study theology in one of
their own houses. Outsiders are to be invited and the
defense should be conducted with some pomp and circum-
stance. Disputants in the "acts" on the whole of the-
ology need not be chosen from among those who have al-
ready defended some part of theology; rather let those



21


who show greater skill and ability be chosen. Those
who are destined to have the graduate biennium in the-
ology shall hold their "acts" during that time, as will
be explained later.

8. In consultation with the theology professors,
the prefect shall draw up from the four divisions of
theology34 the subject matter for the particular dis-
putations which individuals will have. These disputa-
tions are not to be held too frequently but only from
time to time. They shall last at least two and a half
hours, either in the morning or the afternoon. There
shall be not fewer than three objectors, one of whom
should as a rule be a doctor of theology.

9. The comprehensive disputations or "acts" em-
brace all of theology and occupy both morning and after-
noon. Where it is customary to hold disputations only
in the morning or the afternoon, they shall be held
for a period of at least four or five hours.

10. If it is thought advisable, the theses for
the "acts" may be the same for all who are to take part
in them that year, and may be printed if it is the ac-
ceptable practice to do so.

11. When convenient, one of the "acts" should be
scheduled for the last week of the school year and an-
other one for the week of the reopening of classes.

12. Each year some former students not of the
Society, who have completed their theological course
in our college with more than ordinary distinction,
should be invited to present an "act." Such "acts"
should be conducted with unusual ceremony and should be
attended by as many members of the Society as possible,
by extern doctors, and also by princes of the realm.

13. The professors of theology, either in turn
or both together, shall preside at all the "acts" so
that each may answer questions pertaining to his sub-
ject. Others of the Society who are doctors may also
preside.

14. In the "acts" the theses must not be too
long, nor more than fifty in number, and less than fifty



22


if it is the accepted custom of the college. In a par-
ticular defense there should be no more than twenty
theses, in the monthly disputations not more than twelve
or fifteen, and in the weekly disputations not more than
eight or nine.

15. Before the disputation begins, the defendant
shall briefly explain one or other thesis in theological
form but with a certain elegance of style.

16. The prefect shall see to it that the rules of
the professors of theology and of philosophy be observed
in the conduct of the monthly and weekly disputations.

17. From time to time, that is, at least once a
month, the prefect shall attend the lectures of the pro-
fessors and occasionally look over the notes taken down
in class by the students. Should he observe anything
worthy of critical comment or hear anything from others
which he knows is well founded, he should call it to the
attention of the professor with great tact and gentle-
ness. If it seems necessary he may report the matter to
the rector.

18. He shall do the same when any point of differ-
ence between himself and a professor arises in reviewing
the theses. He must not strike out or change any thesis
without the knowledge of the professor, but the change
should be made, and no one else besides the rector should
know of it.

19. Disputations on the entire course of philoso-
phy shall be held at the end of the third year.35 For
these disputations only a few shall be selected who are
outstanding (i.e. who are more than average in ability)
and capable of upholding the dignity of the occasion.

20. These defendants are to be chosen by three
or more examiners, one of whom shall always be the pre-
fect of studies and another the defendant’s professor.
The rector shall assign a third, either another professor
or someone else whom he judges to be competent. To these
three the rector shall add two more teachers who may be
changed or substituted for; but if teachers are not avail-
able, he may appoint any two capable examiners who are to
cast their votes in writing with the other three examiners.




23


Thus there will be a minimum of five votes, which are
to be cast in secret and kept in strictest confidence.

21. It shall suffice for the day or boarding stu-
dents to be examined by their prefect and two students
who are reviewing philosophy, or, lacking these, by two
of the abler Jesuit students of theology selected by the
prefect of studies. However, students judged worthy of
a defense by these examiners shall not prepare for it
until they have been approved by their own professor and
the prefect of studies.

22. No Jesuit student, nor, as far as possible,
any boarding student is to be excused from this examina-
tion. Unless something interferes, it is to be held in
public, that is, when a Jesuit student is examined, all
other Jesuit students shall be present; when a boarding
student is examined, it shall be before all the philoso-
phy students of his college; and when a day student is
examined (who, however, shall not be forced to undergo
the examination), day students of philosophy, at least
of his class, shall attend.

23. The examinations shall begin immediately after
the Easter holidays, or sooner if the number to be exam-
ined is very large. After consulting with the prefect
of studies and the professor of the class, the rector
shall draw up a calendar of examination days which he
considers most suitable. The examination of each stu-
dent shall last at least an hour and cover all the im-
portant subject matter, which the prefect of studies
shall assign to the examiners in good season and in se-
cret.

24. Disputations in philosophy shall take up the
same amount of time as the regular classes, either in
the morning or the afternoon. Generally there shall be
three objectors, one of whom, when possible, shall be a
Jesuit professor of philosophy or of theology, or else
a doctor, either from another religious order or an ex-
tern. The number and nature of the theses shall be the
same as prescribed in rules 9, 10, 11 and 12 for general
disputations in theology.

25. The prefect shall take care that not only
the students but also the professors attend the "acts"


24


in theology and also in philosophy, and that students
and professors of philosophy attend the "acts" in philo-
sophy. The professors will give life as well as dignity
to the disputation by joining in the argument. All must
likewise be present when a master’s or a doctor’s degree
is to be conferred. The rector shall let the prefect of
studies know what his responsibilities are on such an
occasion.

26. When members of the Society are invited to a
disputation by externs, either in public academies or
houses of religious, those should be sent who are engaged
in the two-year review of theology.

27. With the aid of the teachers, the prefect shall
prescribe an orderly plan of study, repetition, and dis-
putation not only for the Jesuit students but also for
the boarding and day students. He shall so arrange their
timetable that suitable hours be reserved for private
study.

28. He shall not permit any address to be delivered
publicly either in the college or outside, whether by stu-
dents who are to be granted degrees, by disputants engaged
in general or particular "acts," or by students of rhetor-
ic, unless he has previously examined and approved it.

29. He shall make sure that the students have
enough useful books at their disposal and a minimum of un-
profitable ones. He should therefore remind the rector
in good time to make provision for a supply of books to
meet the present and future needs of both Jesuit and ex-
tern students.

30. He shall not give permission to students of
theology and philosophy to have books of any and every
nature. They should be allowed only those which have
been recommended by their instructors and approved by the
rector. The theologians should have the Summa of St.
Thomas, the philosophers Aristotle, and in addition some
selected commentary which they may consult in their private
study. All theologians should have the decrees of the
Council of Trent and the Bible, and they should become
familiar with them. The prefect should discuss with the
rector the suitability of readings in Patristic literature.
He shall likewise give both theologians and philosophers



 

25


some work of classical literature and suggest that they
set themselves a definite, though not too rigid a sche-
dule for such reading.


* * * * *

COMMON RULES OF PROFESSORS OF THE
HIGHER FACULTIES


1. It should be the set purpose of the teacher,
both in his lectures as opportunity offers and on other
occasions, to inspire his students to the love and serv-
ice of God and to the practice of the virtues which He
expects of them, for this is the sole purpose of all
their activities.

2. To keep this ideal ever before their minds
let one of the students recite a short prayer, composed
for this purpose, at the beginning of class. The profes-
sor and students should follow attentively and with heads
uncovered. At least let the professor, with uncovered
head, make the sign of the Cross and then begin his lec-
ture.

3. He should also pray frequently for the spiri-
tual welfare of his students and be an example to them
by his dedicated life. And he should sometimes exhort
them on religious matters, at least prior to the major
feasts and the longer vacations. He should especially
urge them to pray to God, to examine their consciences
in the evening, to receive the sacraments of penance and
the holy eucharist frequently and fervently, to attend
Mass daily, to listen to sermons on all feast days, to
shun bad habits, to hate sin, and to cultivate the vir-
tues worthy of a Christian man.

4. He should obey the prefect of studies in every-
thing that concerns studies and the discipline of the

 


 

26


school. He should submit theses to the prefect for
review before they are published. He should not under-
take to explain any texts or authors not commonly in
use, nor introduce innovations in his method of teaching
or in the conduct of disputations.

5. In arguing debatable questions, he should de-
fend his view with such modesty and courtesy as to show
respect for the contrary view, the more so if it was
held by his predecessor. When it is possible to recon-
cile diverse views, an attempt should be made to do so.
He should express himself temperately in naming or re-
futing authors.

6. Even in regard to doctrines which do not in-
volve danger to faith and piety, no professor should
propose novel opinions in matters of serious import,
nor espouse views which are not grounded on reputable
authority, without first consulting his superiors. He
should not teach anything that runs counter to the estab-
lished doctrines of scholastic theologians and the com-
mon teaching of the schools. Rather everyone should
follow the masters and, as far as circumstances of the
times allow, the accepted teaching of Catholic authori-
ties.

7. He should not bring up worthless, obsolete,
absurd, or patently false opinions, nor spend time in
commenting on or refuting them. He should seek to es-
tablish his conclusions not so much by the number as by
the cogency of his arguments. He should not digress
into matters foreign to his subject, nor treat his sub-
ject diffusely or out of its proper place. Instead of
heaping up possible objections, he should bring up
briefly only the weightiest of them, unless even these
can be easily refuted from the established proof of the
proposition.

8. Let him avoid citing the authority of learned
men to excess, but if he has the witness of eminent the-
ologians in confirmation of his views, or in particular
the authority of Scripture, the Councils, or the Fathers,
he should as far as possible quote their own words, but
briefly and faithfully. It scarcely becomes the dignity
of a professor to cite an authority whose works he him-
self has not read.


 

27


9. If anyone can teach without dictating, yet
in such a way that the students can take whatever notes
they need, it is better for him not to dictate. Cer-
tainly anyone who dictates should do so in continuous
sentences and not pause between each word. If need be,
he can then repeat the whole sentence in the same words.
Nor should he first dictate a whole passage and then
explain it, but his dictation should be accompanied by
a running commentary.

10. Citations from authors whose books are easily
accessible are to be explained but not dictated. In
fact, the teacher should give his students references to
authors who discuss pertinent points accurately and in
detail.

11. After his lecture he should remain in or near
his classroom for at least a quarter of an hour so that
his pupils may come and ask him questions. He will thus
be able occasionally to demand an account of his lectures
and to see that they are reviewed.

12. Every day, except Saturdays, holidays, and
feast days, an hour is to be assigned the Jesuit students
for repetition that thus their minds
may be given more
exercise and difficult points that arise be better ex-
plained. And so one or two students, appointed in ad-
vance, should give the repetition from memory for not
more than a quarter of an hour. Then discussion should
begin, with one or two proposing objections and one or
two answering them. Any time remaining is to be given
to resolving difficulties. To secure time for this the
teacher will insist that the syllogistic form of reason-
ing be strictly followed. When the objectors have nothing
new to advance, he should cut short the discussion.

13. Toward the end of the year there is to be a
repetition of the year’s lectures. It is to be so ar-
ranged that as far as possible an entire month will be
left free from both lectures and repetitions.

14. On Saturday or any other day dictated by lo-
cal custom, disputations should be held in the classes
for two hours, or longer where there are many extern stu-
dents. If two feast days occur in a week, or one feast
day besides the weekly holiday, the disputations will be



28


dropped and regular lectures given; but should this
circumstance occur three weeks in succession, one dis-
putation shall be held.

15. Where the approved custom of the school does
not interfere, disputations shall be helLi, in both the
morning and the afternoon on a definite day every month,
except during the last three months of the summer. If
the number of students is small, the disputations shall
be held every second month. Each teacher should select
a student to defend theses drawn from the subject matter
of his class.

16. Other professors of the Society, though they
belong to different faculties, should attend the dispu-
tations whenever possible. To enliven the discussions,
they should press the objections that are proposed, but
should not urge an objection while the appointed objec-
tor is still arguing his point with vigor and effect.
The same privilege may be extended to extern doctors,
who may even be invited expressly to take part in the
argument, unless in some places this practice does not
meet with approval.

17. None but the better students should be allowed
to take part in public disputations. The rest should be
prepared by private disputations until they are suffi-
ciently well trained to appear creditably in public.

18. The professor should consider that a day of
disputation demands as much effort and bears as much
fruit as a day of class, and that the whole effectiveness
and zest of the disputation depend on himself. While
presiding he should appear to be arguing with both de-
fendant and objector. He should applaud a point well
made and call it to everybody’s attention. When an un-
usually important difficulty is proposed, let him offer
some suggestion either to assist the defender or to di-
rect the objector. He should neither keep silent too
long nor speak too often, so that the student disputants
will be able to demonstrate what they know. He should,
however, correct or elaborate the arguments advanced by
the disputants. He should urge the objector to keep
pressing a difficulty as long as it still has force. In
fact, he himself should strengthen its force, and he
must block any attempt of the objector to turn aside to


29


another argument. He should not permit an objection
already fairly well solved to be pressed on too long
nor a weak answer to be defended too long; but after
some discussion, he should briefly state and explain
the point of the debate. Finally, any other practices
introduced in the schools which make the disputation
livelier and more popular should be carefully retained.

19. He should occasionally confer with his as-
sistant or beadle,36 who is appointed by the rector,
and question him about the state of the whole class as
well as the industry and progress of the extern stu-
dents. He should see to it that the beadle himself
discharges his duties faithfully and well.

20. In sum, the professor, with the help of God’s
grace, should be diligent and unremitting in his work
and eager for the advancement of his students in their
lectures and other exercises. He must not show himself
either partial or unfriendly to anyone. He must give
attention to the advancement in studies of the poor and
the wealthy with equal solicitude, devoting himself in
a special way to the progress of each and everyone of
his students.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF
SACRED SCRIPTURE

1. He should understand that his principal duty
will be to explain the Sacred Scriptures reverently,
learnedly, and seriously, according to their genuine and
exact sense. Thus will true faith in God and the founda-
tions of sound morality be strengthened.

2. Chief among his objectives in teaching Holy Writ
will be to defend the version approved by the Church.


30


3. In order to ascertain the genuine sense of
Holy Writ, he must note the idiomatic expressions
and figures of speech peculiar to Scripture. He must
skilfully compare the passage he is reading not only
with that which precedes and follows but also with
other passages where the same phrase will have some-
times the same, sometimes a different meaning.

4. For this purpose he should cite pertinent
examples from the Hebrew and Greek versions, but he
should do so briefly and only when some discrepancy
between them and the Vulgate must be harmonized, or
when idiomatic expressions of the Hebrew or Greek ver-
sions afford clearer meaning and insight.

5. In the study of recent Latin, Chaldaic, and
Syriac versions as well as those of Theodotio, Aquila,
and Symmachus, he should take up for discussion and
refutation only outstanding errors and those which have
seeming plausibility. On the other hand, he should not
omit any evidence that strongly supports the Vulgate and
the mysteries of the faith, especially when such evidence
is found in the Septuagint, which must always be spoken
of with deference.

6. If the canons of Popes or Councils, notably
the General Councils, declare that a literal sense is
to be attached to any passage, he should defend that
literal sense. He should not add any other literal
meanings unless led to do so by unusually strong conjec-
tures. If the Popes or Councils explicitly adduce any
text to establish a dogma of faith, he should teach that
sense, whether literal or mystical, as certain.

7. Let him reverently follow in the footsteps of
the Fathers of the Church. If he finds that they are
of one mind on a literal or allegorical interpretation,
especially if they speak explicitly or in clear terms
and refer professedly to the Scriptures or dogmas, he
should not differ from them. However, if they disagree,
he should choose from their different interpretations
the one which the Church has for many years and by gen-
eral consent favored most.

8. Should a majority of the Fathers or theologi-
ans maintain that they can prove some dogma of faith from
Holy Writ, he should not say that it cannot be proved
from that source.


31


9. If anything in the rabbinical writings of the
Jews is of any value in supporting the Vulgate or Catho-
lic dogma, he should cite it in such a way that he will
not lead others astray by seeming to endow it with pres-
tige, especially if it be found in the writings of those
authors who lived after the time of Christ.

10. He should not concern himself with searching
out other rabbinical lore, or with attacking their errors,
unless the authors be of very high repute. He should
adopt the same attitude toward certain Christian exegetes
who have trusted too much to the rabbinical writers.

11. He should not put overmuch reliance on vowel
points, an invention of the rabbis, but he should dili-
gently study how our version or the Septuagint or other
ancient interpreters read the passage in the absence of
vowel points.

12. He should not delay unduly over single texts
of Scriptures, except when one is so important as to be
worth the delay. Otherwise progress will be slow. He
will save time by passing rapidly over easier texts or
omitting them.

13. He should not use the scholastic method37 in
questions peculiar to Holy Writ.

14. He should not dwell long on fine points of
chronology, topography or other less useful matters of
this kind except when some passage demands such inquiry.
It will suffice to mention writers who treat these mat-
ters fully.

15. He should not fail to notice allegories and
moral passages if they are not commonly known, if they
are obviously suggested by the wording of the passage,
and especially if they present a striking observation of
profound import. In the absence of such values, he
should do no more than indicate where the passage is
discussed by the Fathers.

16. If he chance upon a passage which is in dis-
pute between ourselves and heretics, or which has been
worn threadbare in theological discussions, he should
merely explain the passage in a dignified yet vigorous

 


32


manner, especially if he is disputing against heretics.
He should focus his attention on the importance of the
topic for this precise context. By omitting all extrane-
ous detail he will show that he is mindful of his sole
responsibility, which is to teach Scripture and Scripture
alone.

17. Unless for a time some other arrangement be
thought better, he should expound the Old and the New
Testament in alternate years.

18. Except for a very good reason, he should not
carry over into another year the explanation of a book
begun the previous year. He should not take up unfin-
ished matter of the previous year until he has almost
finished matter assigned to the new term.

19. Besides the repetitions held once a week for
our scholastics, pertinent table readings from the Scrip-
tures are to be given occasionally in the refectory, as
the rector may decide.

20. In place of the usual lecture, from time to
time one of the pupils should be chosen to expound fully
and in literary style some more famous passage of Holy
Writ. When he has finished, one or two of his fellow
students should argue against him. The objector should
draw his material only from Scripture itself or from the
peculiarities of the language of Scripture or from the
interpretations of the Fathers.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF HEBREW

1. He should consider it of the first importance
to interpret with complete accuracy the original words
of Holy Writ.


33


2. Among his objectives in teaching the Hebrew
language will be the defense of the version of Scrip-
ture approved by the Church.

3. In the beginning of the year he is to explain
the simplest rudiments of granimar and then, while con-
tinuing instruction in the language, he should explain
one of the easier books of Scripture.

4. In interpreting Holy Writ, he should not
spend so much effort on the content and the thought as
on the sense and force of the words, the idiomatic ex-
pressions, and the grammatical rules as exemplified in
the apt usage of the writers.

5. Finally, he should so plan his teaching tech-
niques as to reduce and relieve by his efforts that out-
landish harshness which in the minds of some bedevils
the study of this language.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF
SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY


1. He should understand that it is his duty to
combine keenness of mind in disputation with untarnished
faith and sincere love of God so that his professional
competence will contribute to his progress in the spir-
itual life.

2. Members of our Society shall expressly follow
the teaching of St. Thomas in scholastic theology. They
should consider him their own teacher and should make
every effort to have their students hold him in the high-
est possible esteem. Still, they are not to consider
themselves so restricted to his teaching that they may
not depart from him in any single point. Even those who
expressly style themselves Thomists sometimes depart from


34


his doctrine. The members of the Society therefore
should not be more strictly bound to him than the Thom-
ists themselves.

3. In regard to the Immaculate Conception of the
Blessed Virgin38 and to the meaning of solemn vows,39 let
them defend the doctrine more cornmonly held in our time
and the one generally favored by theologians. In purely
philosophical questions and in those which pertain to
Scripture and Canon Law, they are at liberty also to
follow other authorities who have professedly dealt with
these subjects.

4. In matters when the opinion of St. Thomas is
ambiguous or not even expressed, it is permitted to
choose either side if Catholic scholars are not in agree-
ment, as is stated in the fifth of the common rules.

5. In teaching he should have first regard for
strengthening faith and nourishing devotion. So with
respect to questions which St. Thomas does not treat
professedly, no one should teach any doctrine that does
not accord well with the mind of the Church and her tra-
ditions or that in any way might bring about a decline
in genuine piety. Hence, no one is to quibble about the
arguments usually accepted in dealing with matters of
faith, even though they are drawn only from the fitness
of things. He should not contrive new arguments unless
he can base them on solid principles.

6. Opinions, of no matter what author, which are
known to be highly offensive to Catholics of a particu-
lar province or school of thought, are not to be taught
or defended wherever they might arouse resentment. When
matters of faith or morals are not involved, a prudent
charity dictates that members of our Society should have
due regard for the feelings of those among whom they
dwell.

7. The full course of theology is to be covered
in four years. If there are two professors of scholastic
theology:

#1. The first professor shall explain forty-three
questions from the Prima Primae [of St. Thomas’ Summa
Theologica] in the first year; in the second year, the
matter on the angels and twenty-one questions from the
Prima Secundae; in the third year, from Questions 55 or


35


71 to the end of the Prima Secundae; in the fourth year,
the matter on faith, hope, and charity from the Secunda
Secundae.

#2. The second professor shall treat during the
first year the questions on justice and right from the
Secunda Secundae
and the principal questions de religione;
during the second year, the questions on the Incarnation
from the Tertia, and, if possible, some of the more im-
portant articles on the sacraments in general; during the
third year, he should treat of baptism and the eucharist
and if possible orders, confirmation, and extreme unction;
during the fourth year he should take up penance and matri-
mony.

#3. Where there are three professors of theology,
in the first year the first professor shall explain
twenty-six questions from the Prima Primae; in the second
year, as many of the remaining questions as he can; in
the third year, whatever he can cover from the Prima
Secundae to Question eighty-one; in the fourth year, the
remainder of the Prima Secundae.

#4. The second professor shall expound in the first
year from the Secunda Secundae the controversies on scrip-
ture, tradition, the Church, the Council, the Roman Pon-
tiff; in the second year, questions on faith, hope, and
charity; in the third year, whatever he can cover on jus-
tice and right, on restitution, usury, and contracts; in
the fourth year, whatever remains to be treated on con-
tracts, and St. Thomas’ treatment on religion and the
states of life.

#5. The third professor shall deal with, in the
first year, questions on the Incarnation; in the second
year, questions on the sacraments in general, and on the
eucharist and baptism; in the third year, the questions
on penance and matrimony; in the fourth year, questions
on ecclesiastical censures and on the rest of the sacra-
ments.

8. Each professor should finish within the year
the subject matter he was assigned to teach. If he
cannot complete some part of it, he should not postpone
it to another year, but rather omit it altogether and
refer the students to a reliable author.

9. To facilitate progress in scholastic theology,
it is expedient for the teacher to leave out of con-


36


sideration, whenever possible, certain types of subject
matter, but in particular these four:

#1. One type concerns questions and commentary
on Scripture which may be left to the professor of Scrip-
ture.

#2. Another has to do with controversies with here-
tics. When these are met in St. Thomas, they should be
treated in the scholastic rather than the historical meth-
od. It will suffice to bolster the conclusions with two
or three solid arguments and to expose two or three of
the principal calumnies of the heretics. In each in-
stance, however, the teacher should indicate some author
who will give further material to those who want it.

#3. To the third type belong philosophical ques-
tions. He should not deal with these questions express-
ly, nor discuss them, but simply indicate where the stu-
dents may find explanations worked out by himself or
others.

#4. The fourth type concerns cases of conscience.
He should merely point out certain general moral princi-
ples, which are usually discussed in theological dispu-
tations, and pass over the more subtle and minute ex-
planation of the cases.

10. When it happens that St. Thomas treats of the
same problem in several distinct treatises, the problem
should not be studied first in one context and then in
another, but the several treatments should be synthesized,
or, if the scope of the subject matter permits, reduced
to a brief synopsis. This procedure is definitely pro-
vided for in the catalogue of questions appended to these
rules.40 It must be remembered, however, that no point
of any significance in any of the treatises is to be
overlooked in this procedure.

11. The teacher should skim rapidly over the ar-
ticles that are easily understood. Thus, after read-
ing the title, he should at once indicate in a few words
the conclusion of St. Thomas, or say: St. Thomas answers
by denying or affirming. In questions of greater dif-
ficulty, he is to proceed somewhat as follows: he should
first explain the title of the article in case it is not
altogether clear. He should then point out the differ-
ent elements in the main proposition which may be responsi-
ble for the drawing of divergent conclusions. Finally,


37


he should set forth St. Thomas’ several conclusions,
beginning with the most significant. He should then
point out the reasoning process which led up to each
conclusion, unless of course they are quite obvious.
In this way the students will realize that St. Thomas’
logic possesses more cogency than at first sight would
appear.

12. After explaining a proposition, he should
discuss its various implications, but not at great
length, except in such matters as are not treated in
St. Thomas or are treated but would profit from a fuller
explanation.

13. It is not enough for him to report the opin-
ions of the doctors without committing himself. Let
him either defend the views of St. Thomas, as has been
said, or omit the question altogether.

14. In the monthly disputations there should be
as many disputants as there are teachers. Generally,
three should argue in the morning and three in the af-
ternoon. Whosoever pleases may argue against the defend-
ants, and if nothing interferes, the first defendant at
the morning session should be second in the afternoon.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF
CASES OF CONSCIENCE41


1. He must direct all his efforts and skill to
the training of competent pastors and administrators
of the sacraments.

2. One professor should spend two years on the
explanation of all the sacraments, the censures, and
the different states of life and their duties. The
other professor should likewise spend two years on the


38


ten commandments, including under the seventh the
subject of contracts, but always touching only light-
ly on matters of less importance and those not per-
tinent to the course, such as removal from office,
loss of rank, magic, and similar topics.

3. He should refrain entirely from treating of
theological questions which have no essential connec-
tion with cases of conscience. It will be expedient,
however, for him to discuss very briefly certain the-
ological points on which the doctrinal aspects of the
cases depend, as, for example, what the sacramental
character is, whether there is one or many, what mortal
and venial sin are, what constitutes consent, and the
like.

4. Short of using the scholastic formalities,
each difficulty is to be handled by proposing a diffi-
culty and resolving it. The solution should be based
on not more than two or three arguments, and authori-
ties for it should not be heaped up. Three particular
cases will suffice to illustrate a general precept or
rule.

5. He should substantiate his own opinions in
such a way that if another opinion seems probable and
is supported by good authority, he shall recognize it
as also probable.

6. Every Saturday the lecture shall be dropped
and a disputation on proposed solutions of cases will
be held before the teacher for a period of two hours,
or a little less, depending on the decision of the pro-
vincial and the size of the class. The disputation
should be conducted by means of questions, that is, by
asking the solution of some difficulty, by proposing a
new case with some changed circumstances, by citing a
canon or the opinion of a noted authority against some
conclusion. Sometimes a short discussion pro and contra
may be introduced to lend more dignity to the occasion,
but it should be done with moderation and on a different
level from the usual philosophical disputation.

7. If he has been appointed by the rector at
the provincial’s bidding to take charge of the discus-
sion of cases in the community, he should observe the
following order. First, he should choose a subject


39


for discussion, sometimes a subject bearing on actual
practice, such as the manner of questioning a penitent,
the remedies to be applied and penances to be imposed,
and the like. Second, he should briefly discuss the
subject matter chosen, indicating the principles and
precepts involved, so as to give a general view of the
subject and to throw light on all its various aspects.
Lastly, he should choose three or four cases dealing
with the proposed subject matter. These he should have
posted in the place where the discussion is to be held
and he should indicate the day for the meeting.

8. Certain individuals should privately study
these proposed cases, each taking one case and reading
up on it in authorities furnished by the presiding of-
ficer.

9. On convening, it would be useful for each to
explain briefly the opinion of his authority on the
case he is handling. Next, the presiding officer should
call upon three or more (who should be forewarned and
should be chosen in rotation) to give their opinion on
the first case, so that he may arrive at a prudent and
more probable solution. He should follow the same pro-
cedure with the other cases. Finally, after summing up
the discussion and solution of the cases as is customary
in a disputation on cases, he should call for questions
to be answered by one of the three appointed for the
discussion. In the end he should give his own judgment.

10. If anyone comes across a case outside the
matter ordinarily discussed in these conferences, he
should report it to the presiding officer, if circum-
stances allow, so that it can be discussed at a later
conference.


* * * * *


40


RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY


1. Since the humanities or natural sciences42
prepare the intellectual powers for theology and assist
in the perfect understanding and practical application
of religious truth and by virtue of their content con-
tribute to the attainment of this goal, the teacher
whose heart is set on advancing the honor and glory of
God, should teach these secular subjects in a spirit
which will prepare his students, and especially his
Jesuit students, for the study of theology. He should
above all lead them to a knowledge of their Creator.

2. He shall not depart from Aristotle in matters
of importance, unless he find some doctrine contrary to
the common teaching of the schools or, more serious
still, contrary to the true faith. If he does find
such contrary doctrines in Aristotle or any other phil-
osopher, he shall be at pains thoroughly to refute them
as the Lateran Council prescribes.

3. He shall be very careful in what he reads or
quotes in class from commentators on Aristotle who are
objectionable from the standpoint of faith, and he must
be cautious lest his pupils come under their influence.

4. For this reason he shall not give separate
treatment to the digressions of Averroes (and this holds
for others like him). But if he quotes something of
value from his writings, he should do so without prais-
ing him and, if possible, should show that Averroes has
borrowed it from another source.

5. He shall not attach himself or his students
to any philosophical sect, such as the Averroists, the
Alexandrists,43 and the like, and he should not cloak
over their errors or those of similar sects, but should
sharply question and minimize their authority because
of these errors.

6. On the other hand, he should always speak
favorably of St. Thomas, following him readily when he


41


should, differing from him with respect and a certain
reluctance when he finds him less acceptable.

7. He should teach the full course of philosophy
in not less than three years, lecturing for two hours
daily, one in the morning and one in the afternoon,
unless in his particular university a different arrange-
ment has been prescribed.

8. Thus the term will never be completed before,
or not much before, the vacation period which falls at
the end of the school year.

9. #1. He should explain the principles of logic
the first year, devoting the first two months to a di-
gest of it, not by dictating but by discussing pertinent
passages from Toledo or Fonseca.44

#2. In the introduction to logic he should dis-
cuss only such questions as: its claim to be a science,
its proper subject matter, and the general concept of
universal ideas. He should postpone the full discus-
sion of universals until metaphysics, being contented
here to give no more than a general idea of them.

#3. Similarly he should discuss only the easier
of the predicables, which are usually taken from Aris-
totle, and should defer a larger discussion of them un-
til the second year. But in logic he should explain as
fully as need be the notions of analogy and relations,
since these very frequently occur in philosophical dis-
cussions.

#4. He should cursorily cover the second book
On Interpretation and both books of the Prior Analytics,
except the first eight or nine chapters of the first
book. Even in these chapters he should explain what
is pertinent and treat only very briefly the notion of
contingency and not at all the question of free will.

#5. In order to give the whole second year to
the physical sciences, he should begin a fuller discus-
sion of science at the end of the first year and in it
he should include the major topics of the introduction
to physics, such as the divisions of science, abstrac-
tions, theoretical and practical science, subordination,
the difference of method in mathematics and physics,


42


which is treated by Aristotle in the second book of
the Physics, and finally what Aristotle says about
definition in the second book On the Soul.

#6. The discussion of the grounds of proof and
fallacies from the Topics and the Elenchi, rearranged
in more convenient order, should preferably be ex-
plained in the digest given at the beginning of logic.

10. #1. In the second year he should explain
the eight books of the Physics, the books On the Heavens,
and the first book On Generation. He should treat the
text of the sixth and seventh books of the Physics com-
pendiously, and likewise that part of the first book
which discusses the opinions of the ancients. In the
eighth book he should omit discussion of the number of
intelligences, of liberty, and of the infinity of the
prime mover. These matters will be explained in meta-
physics according to the views of Aristotle.

#2. The text of the second, third, and fourth
books On the Heavens will be summarized and for the most
part omitted. In these books he should deal only with
the elements and with the substance and influences of
the heavens. The rest can be left to the professor of
mathematics or reduced to a summary.

#3. What is contained in the Meteorology will be
gone through in the summer months during the last hour
of the afternoon class. Where possible it should be
taught by the regular professor of philosophy, or by a
special teacher, unless another arrangement seems more
convenient.

11. #1. In the third year he is to explain the
second book On Generation, the books On the Soul, and
the Metaphysics. He should merely summarize the opin-
ions of the ancient philosophers that are discussed in
the first book On the Soul, and when he is discussing
the sense organs in the second book he should avoid di-
gressing into anatomy and similar topics which are the
concern of medical science.

#2. In the Metaphysics he should pass over the
questions on God and on the types of intelligence,
which depend entirely or in great part on truths derived
from revelation. The preface and the text of the seventh
and twelfth books are for the most part to be thoroughly


43


explained. From each of the other books he should se-
lect certain principal texts which are basic to the
discussion of questions found in the Metaphysics.

12. He should make it his chief aim to interpret
well the text of Aristotle and be as painstaking in this
interpretation as in discussing the subject matter it-
self. He should likewise convince his students that
their philosophy will be weak and wanting if they do not
value highly this study of the texts.

13. Whenever he comes upon celebrated texts that
are often argued in disputations, he must examine them
carefully by comparing the more noted interpretations
so as to judge which is to be preferred. He should base
his judgment on a study of the context, on the special
force of the Greek expression, on a comparison with
other texts, on the authority of eminent commentators,
or finally, on the conclusiveness of the reasons advanced.
He will then come to certain minor questions of inter-
pretation which are not to be gone into too deeply nor
omitted if they are of any importance.

14. He should have available a large selection
of topics for discussion. If, however, any of these do
not have their origin in the Aristotelian text at hand,
but are suggested by some axiom he himself uses as a
passing remark in his argument, they are to be deferred
until they are met in their proper place in other books,
provided they are treated there. Otherwise they are to
be explained immediately following the text by which
they were suggested.

15. Questions that come up in the reading of
Aristotle are to be treated only after all the passages
touching on this matter have been explained, unless in-
deed the passages are too numerous to be expounded in
one or another lecture. But if passages being read are
too lengthy, such as those on principles, causes, and
motion, then the emerging questions are to be neither
treated exhaustively nor entirely postponed to the end
of the reading. Rather let reading and discussion be
suitably intermingled.

16. At the conclusion of a lecture, the students
in small groups of about ten each should spend half an
hour reviewing among themselves the lecture just given.


44


One of the students, preferably a member of the So-
ciety, should be put in charge of each group.

17. Monthly disputations are to be held, in
which not less than three students should pose objec-
tions in the morning and as many in the afternoon. The
first should argue for an hour and the others for about
three-quarters of an hour. In the morning disputation
some theologian (if there are enough theologians) should
open the argument against a student of metaphysics; a
student of metaphysics against a student of physics; a
student of physics against a student of logic. In the
afternoon a student of metaphysics, physics, and logic
respectively should propose arguments against another
student of each of these disciplines. In the morning
also a student of metaphysics and in the afternoon a
student of physics should briefly substantiate one or
other conclusion by philosophical arguments.

18. While the professor is teaching the elements
of logic, neither he nor his students are to attend
these disputations. In fact, during the first week or
two the logicians will have no disputations but will be
content with the explanation of their subject. There-
after they can hold disputations in their own class on
Saturdays.

19. Where there is only one professor of philoso-
phy, he is to hold more impressive disputations three or
four times a year on a feast day or other holiday, sur-
rounding them with pomp and ceremony and inviting religious
and other doctors to take part in the arguments. In this
way our philosophical studies will receive a fruitful
stimulus.

20. The young philosophers are to be trained from
the very beginning of logic to consider it a matter of
shame to deviate in a disputation from the use of the
scholastic form. The teacher should be most vigorous
in demanding of them the observance of the laws of argu-
mentation and the proper order to be followed by the dis-
putants. Accordingly, one who defends in a disputation
must first repeat the full objection without replying to
the separate premises. Next he is to repeat each premise
of the argument and reply “I deny” or “I concede the
major, minor, or conclusion.” Occasionally, too, he


45


should distinguish, but rarely interject explanations
or reasons, particularly if unasked.


*****

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR OF
MORAL PHILOSOPHY

1. He is to understand that it is not at all
his concern to digress into theological questions. He
should follow his text and explain briefly and in a
scholarly and serious manner the principal topics of
moral science as contained in the ten books of Aristotle’s
Ethics.

2. When the course of ethics is not handled by
the professor of philosophy himself, the man who teaches
ethics should expound to the students of metaphysics
the more important topics of this course for three quar-
ters of an hour or for half an hour daily.

3. Repetitions of ethics must be conducted at
least every two weeks at a time set by the rector, even
though one repetition of metaphysics must on this account
be omitted.

4. When the class of metaphysics has its monthly
disputations privately at home or publicly in class, some
thesis in ethics is to be added to the other theses for
disputation, and the student of metaphysics who is ob-
jecting should argue against this thesis for a quarter of
an hour.


* * * * *


46

RULES OF THE PROFESSOR
OF MATHEMATICS

1. He should spend about three quarters of an
hour of class time in explaining the elements of Euclid
to the students of physics. After two months, when his
students are somewhat familiar with the subject, he
should add some geography or astronomy or similar matter
which the students enjoy hearing about. This added ma-
terial is to be given on the same day with Euclid or on
alternate days.

2. Every month, or at least every second month,
he should have one of the students solve some celebrated
mathematical problem in the presence of a large gather-
ing of students of philosophy and theology. Afterwards,
if he wishes, the solution may be discussed.

3. Once a month, generally on a Saturday, the
class period should be given over to a review of the
subject matter completed that month.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE PREFECT OF
LOWER STUDIES

1. He should be aware that he has been chosen to
help the rector in every way possible in directing and
administering our schools to the end that our students
may advance in uprightness of life as well as in the
liberal arts.



47


2. In whatever pertains to school discipline he
should consult with the rector alone; for studies he
should seek advice from the general prefect of studies.
He is not to depart from their decisions, and he must
not abolish any established custom or introduce any new
one.

3. He should submit to the general prefect for
his approval declamations which the students of rhetoric
or of the lower classes are to deliver publicly whether
at home or in the school. Emblematic compositions45 and
poems which are to be displayed on the greater feast
days should be read by two judges appointed by the rec-
tor. They are to select the best.

4. He should have at hand the rules of the teach-
ers and students of the lower classes and enforce their
observance with the same fidelity with which he must ob-
serve those of his own office. He should assist and di-
rect the teachers, and take special care that nothing is
done to lessen their authority and esteem in the eyes of
others, especially of their pupils.

5. He must carefully see to it that new instruc-
tors retain the methods and practices of their predeces-
sors, provided, however, that these are in harmony with
the Ratio. Thus there will be less occasion for complaint
at our frequent change of teachers.

6. He should visit every instructor at least every
two weeks. He should note whether they give the proper
amount of time and effort to Christian doctrine, whether
they are making sufficient headway in carrying out and
reviewing the assigned subject matter, and finally, whe-
ther they conduct themselves in a proper and commendable
manner in all dealings with their pupils.

7. He should note well in advance and inform the
teachers of feast days and vacations, whether common to
all the provinces or peculiar to his own, especially the
weekly holidays, as well as the timetable of classes at
the different seasons of the year. He should indicate,
too, when the pupils are to be dismissed for public de-
votions and similar events, or are to be given orders or
prohibitions out of the ordinary.


48


8. #1. He must be careful that the subject mat-
ter of the five lower classes, namely, rhetoric, human-
ities, and the three grammar classes is kept distinct.
If because of the large number of pupils the provincial
orders a class to be taught in two sections, let each
section keep the same subject matter, and if several
levels of instruction are in the same classroom, they
must correspond to the grade levels described in the
rules of the masters.

#2. To keep this distinction better and more
easily, all the rules of Emmanuel’s grammar should be
divided into three books, one for each grammar class.

The first book, for the lowest class, shall com-
prise the whole of Emmanuel’s first book and a brief
introduction to syntax taken from the second book.

The second book, for the middle grammar class,
shall contain the second book of Emmanuel on the con-
struction of the eight parts of speech down to figures
of speech, with the easier appendices added.

The third book, for the highest grammar class,
shall include the second group of appendices from
Emmanuel’s second book, the treatment of figurative
construction to the end, and the third book, which is
on scansion and prosody.

A division of the matter into three parts, sim-
ilar to this, is to be made by even those provinces
which follow a method other than the Roman.46

#3. The instructor of each class should finish
his book, as a rule, in the first semester and repeat
it in the second. But since the book for the first
class takes in more matter than can be explained and
reviewed in one year, it should be divided into two
parts. In fact, it would be better to admit only pupils
who are well grounded in the first part of the grammar,
so that the second part can be explained and repeated
in one year, as in the other classes. Where this can-
not be done, the lowest class ought to have two divi-
sions, one of which shall study the first part of the
book, and the other the second part, until the end of
the first semester. In the second semester each of the


49


two divisions shall review the whole from the beginning.
Wherever this division of a class takes place, one in-
structor may teach the lower division, another the
higher.

#4. This repetition has a double advantage. First,
what is most often repeated will be more deeply impressed
on the mind. Second, the more gifted boys can complete
the course more rapidly than the others, since they can
advance each semester.

#5. Where there are five classes, the distinct
scope and subject matter provided for in the rules of the
instructors are to be observed. Nor should more than
one grade level be allowed in any class except the lowest.

#6.47 Where there are four classes, either drop
the class of rhetoric and keep the other four classes as
just described or, what is better, keep rhetoric as the
highest class and retain its subject matter exactly as
defined in the rules of the teacher of rhetoric. Then
the second class will be that of humanities, which also
must retain the subject matter defined for it in the
rules of the teacher of humanities. The third class
will have two divisions, the first corresponding to the
highest grammar class, the second to the middle grammar
class. Finally, the fourth class shall correspond to
the lowest class of grammar, and it may be divided into
two grade levels as is explained in the rules of its
teacher. If in this class only one, the higher division,
is admitted, then the third class shall consist of only
the highest grammar class, while the fourth class will
have two divisions consisting of the middle and lowest
grammar classes.

#7. Where there are three classes, the two lower
shall keep their grade level as just described for a
school of four classes. The highest class shall be
either simply humanities, or let it have two divisions,
one for rhetoric, the other for humanities. But the
higher division, rhetoric, should not be introduced ex-
cept with the rector’s advice, when there is a sufficient
number of pupils able to profit by the subject matter of
this higher division, and when at the same time the in-
structor will be able to give due care and attention to
the lower division, or humanities.


50


#8. Where there are two classes, the lower shall
have two divisions, the one corresponding to the higher
level of the lowest grammar class, the other to the mid-
dle grammar class. Likewise the higher class shall have
two divisions, the one corresponding to the highest gram-
mar class, the other to the class of humanities.

#9. Even in classes which have two divisions, both
will have the same review of the year’s subject matter
as mentioned in #3 above. Indeed, where possible, so
that each division may cover all the matter in the first
semester and review it in the second, the pupils shall
advance as though in two classes of a single division
and shall spend two years on the subject matter. Should
this prove too difficult, even more time may be spent.

#10. To secure this result in classes that have
two divisions, all the subject matter, except grammar,
should be taught in common to both together, the teacher
asking the easier questions of the lower division, the
harder of the higher. Then only one theme shall be
given, but the higher division should do the whole theme,
while the lower division should do only the first or the
last part, which will be adapted to the precepts they
have seen. Finally, the exercises and contests shall
also be common to both. Only the grammar prelection is
distinct, and this may be given one day to one division,
another day to the other, or there may be a daily prelec-
tion and review for each division by apportioning the
time between them.

9. Wherever possible, the prefect of studies
should not admit a boy to the school who is not brought
by his parents or guardians. This does not apply in
cases where the prefect knows the boy personally or can
easily obtain references. He must not, however, refuse
anyone admission because of poverty or inferior social
status.

10. The prefect should examine new pupils in more
or less the following way: First, he should ask them
what studies they have had and to what extent. Then he
should have them write a composition on an assigned topic.
He should likewise question them on some of the precepts
of the subject they have studied. Finally, he should
have them translate some short sentences into Latin or,
if he prefers, have them interpret some passage in an
author.

 


51


11. He should admit those whom he finds well
instructed and of good moral character, and he should
acquaint them with the rules of our students that they
may know how to conduct themselves. He should record
in a book their name, surname, country, age, parents
or guardians, their acquaintances among our students,
and the day and year of their admission. Finally, he
should assign each one to that class and teacher for
which he is fitted in such wise that he seem qualified
rather for a higher class than unfitted for his own.

12. He should seldom admit to the lowest class
either those who are rather old or are very young, un-
less they are unusually capable. He is not to relax
this rule even though the pupil is sent merely for the
advantages of the moral training.

13. There is to be a general and formal promotion
once a year after the annual vacation. If, however, any
show superior ability and give promise of making better
progress in a higher class than their own (the prefect
will know this by examining their records and consulting
their teachers), they should not be kept back but may be
promoted any time during the year after an examination.48
However, such promotion from the highest grammar class
to humanities or from humanities to rhetoric is hardly
feasible, because in the second semester of humanities
Latin versification is studied and in rhetoric the com-
pendium of Cyprian49 is explained.

14. The matter of the examination should be one
or, if necessary, two prose compositions for all the
classes.50 In the highest grammar class and in humani-
ties, verse should also be required and, if it seems ad-
visable, a Greek composition a few days later.

15. The prefect must see that the instructors an-
nounce the examination two or three days beforehand, and
that the rules for written examinations, which immedi-
ately follow these rules of the prefect, are read in
each class.

16. The prefect or someone whom he appoints shall
preside at the written examinations. When the signal is
given on the examination day, he shall dictate the sub-
ject matter of the composition, which should be a short
rather than a long one.


52


17. He must keep the examination papers in his
possession, arranged in alphabetical order. If there
is no reason against it, he should distribute them
among the examiners. The examiners should evaluate the
papers and note mistakes in the margin.

18. There are to be three examiners. Generally
the prefect of studies himself should be one. The other
two, competent in the classics and, if possible, not
instructors themselves, are appointed by the rector on
the advice of the prefect. When the number to be examined
is very large, two or more boards may be appointed.

19. Pupils should be sent to the examination room
in groups of three, or even more in the lower classes.
These groups should be introduced to the examiners by
their teacher in alphabetical order or in some other
convenient way.

20. The examiners should read the instructor’s
record and note the grades given to each while the pupils
are coming to be examined, and if need be, they should
compare the present record with the earlier records of
the same year to discover what progress each has made
or is likely to make.

21. The method of the examination shall be as
follows. First, if the examiners wish, they shall have
each pupil read a part of his composition. He should
then be told to correct his mistakes and to give the
reason of the correction by indicating the rule violated.
After this, pupils in the grammar classes should be
given something in the vernacular to be turned immedi-
ately into Latin. All should be questioned on the pre-
cepts and other matters taught them in class. Finally,
if thought necessary, a short passage from one of the
authors studied in class should be given for interpreta-
tion.

22. After the examination of each group of three
pupils, the examiners, while their judgment is still
fresh, should give their votes on those examined, taking
into account the composition, the marks given by the
teacher, and the replies to their questions.

23. To come to a decision in doubtful cases, the
prefect should call for a sampling of their daily exer-


53


cises; then he should consult the examiners and if it
seems advisable they may have these pupils undergo an-
other written and oral examination. Further, in these
doubtful cases the age of the pupil, the time spent in
the same class, his talent, and his diligence should
all be taken into account.

24. After the examination, the grade given each
pupil is to be kept secret. Before the public announce-
ment of promotions, each teacher ought to be shown the
list of marks of the pupils in his own class.

25. If anyone is totally unfit to be promoted,
there should be no room for intercession. If a student
is scarcely qualified, but because of his age, the time
he has spent in the same class, or some other reason,
it seems advisable to advance him, he may be promoted
on the condition that if he does not prove his indus-
try to his instructor he shall be sent back to the
lower class and his name stricken from the roll of the
higher class. Finally, if any are so lacking in abil-
ity that they can neither be advanced nor kept with any
profit in the same class, the prefect should consult the
rector so that their parents or guardians may in a very
sympathetic way be advised and these pupils dismissed
from the school.

26. The list of those to be publicly promoted
should be read either in the individual classes or to
all the classes in a general assembly. Those who have
especially distinguished themselves should be read out
first, the rest in alphabetical order or in the order
of merit.

27. Well in advance of the beginning of the
school year, the prefect should confer with the rector
about compiling the list of books to be studied that
year in our classes so that he can discuss it with the
general prefect of studies and with the teachers. It
should be decided in the same way whether any of the
texts or authors should be changed that year.

28. He is to make timely arrangements with the
booksellers so that there will be no lack of books
which we and our pupils use daily or will need for the
coming year.


54


29. In the beginning of each year, he should
either personally or through the teachers assign each
pupil his seat and seat-mates. He must see that the
same is done for the seminary and boarding students by
their prefects, unless perhaps in some localities seats
are arranged according to scholastic merit. Nobles are
given the choicer seats. Where there are Jesuit stu-
dents or other religious, they should have seats separ-
ate from those occupied by extern students. The prefect
should not allow any notable shifting of places without
his knowledge.

30. It is very important that in conjunction with
the instructors or the school prefects he should so ar-
range the time schedule for the students of the Society,
for the boarders and, if convenient, for the extern stu-
dents, that the hours of private study may be well placed.

31. Only for a serious reason should he exempt
anyone, especially for a long time, from writing verse
or learning Greek.

32. He should see to it that the monthly declama-
tions given publicly in the assembly hall by the class
of rhetoric are attended not only by the students of
the classes of rhetoric and humanities but also by those
of the higher classes. Accordingly, the professors
should be advised to invite their students. No Jesuit
student may be absent without the rector’s permission.

33. He should arrange the time, the method, and
the place for the various classes to hold disputations
with one another.51 He is to outline the plan of the
disputation beforehand, and by his presence at the dis-
putations see to it that everything is conducted with
profit, moderation, and harmony. Likewise he should be
present at the declamations which are commonly given in
the school by the students of rhetoric and humanities.

34. In order to give greater prominence to liter-
ary exercises, he should with the rector’s assent or-
ganize academies both in the classes of rhetoric and
humanities and in the grammar classes.52 In these
academies, in accord with the rules laid down at the
end of this book, the students should meet together on
stated days and take turns in giving prelections and in
conducting other exercises appropriate to able students.


55


35. He should remind the rector in good time
about the distribution of prizes and the declamation
or dialogue which may be given on this occasion. In
the distribution of prizes, the regulations given at
the end of these rules are to be followed, and they
should be read in each class prior to the written exam-
inations.

36. He should also see to it that besides the
public prizes other small tokens or symbols of victory
(which the rector will provide) are awarded by the in-
structors in their own classes to spur on their pupils
when they seem to merit distinction by besting a rival
in competition or interpreting an entire book of an
author or reciting it from memory or some similar note-
worthy performance.

37. In keeping with local custom, he should ap-
point a public censor for each class53--or if the term
censor is unacceptable, then a decurion or praetor. To
give him standing among his classmates, he should be ac-
corded certain privileges and have the right, with the
teacher’s approval, of begging them off from lesser pun-
ishments. He is to take note of anyone who leaves the
class before the signal for dismissal is given, or who
goes to another classroom or leaves his own class or
seat. He must report daily to the prefect anyone who
was absent from class or anyone not a student who en-
tered the class and, finally, any breach of discipline
in the class, whether the teacher was present or not.

38. A corrector54 who is not a member of the So-
ciety should be appointed for those who fail in appli-
cation or in good conduct, and for whom friendly advice
and admonitions do not suffice. Where no corrector can
be had, some other means of punishing delinquents, either
at the hands of one of the pupils or in some other suita-
ble way, should be found. Rarely and only for very ser-
ious reason should pupils be punished at school for
faults committed at home.

39. Any who refuse corporal punishment should
be forced to accept it if it can be done safely, or if
this cannot be done with propriety, as in the case of
larger boys, delinquents should, with the cognizance
of the rector, be expelled from school. Expulsion
should likewise be the penalty for those who are fre-
quently absent from school.


56


40. When neither verbal reproof s nor the services
of the corrector avail and the pupil seems to be incor-
rigible and might be something of a scandal to others,
it is better to dismiss him from the school than to keep
him where he will profit himself little and harm others.
This decision, however, will be left to the rector that
everything may be done that will advance the glory and
service of God.

41. If a case should occur in which dismissal
from the school is not enough to remedy the scandal, it
shall be left to the rector to decide what further meas-
ures should be taken. However, as far as possible he
should act in a spirit of leniency to maintain peace
and charity with all.

42. No one who has been expelled or who has left
our school without a valid reason should be permitted
to return without first consulting the rector, who is
to judge what is expedient.

43. No one shall be permitted to carry weapons
either in the corridors or in the classrooms, even of
the higher classes.55 Nor should loafing, shoving or
shouting be allowed, nor profanity or insults in word
or deed, nor any unbecoming or improper conduct. Should
anything of this sort occur, the prefect is to settle
the trouble at once, and if there is anything which dis-
turbs the quiet of the corridors in any way, he should
discuss the matter with the rector.

44. The prefect should be constantly on hand in
the corridors or in a room from which he can see the
corridors during the entire time of class. He should
also inspect the classrooms before the signal is given.
for the students to enter and should always be at the
front door while they are being dismissed.

45. He should take care that there be no noisy
confusion when the pupils are entering and leaving the
church, and that when they assist at Mass one or more
of the instructors be always present. All the pupils
are to attend Mass every day, each in his proper place.

46. He should see that the confessors are in
their places early on the days and at the hours ap-
pointed for hearing the confessions of the pupils.


57


He should visit the church occasionally during that
time to see that the boys conduct themselves with pro-
priety and reverence.

47. Rarely should even the prefect call students
out of class, especially during the time of prelection,
and if others are careless in this regard the prefect
should let the rector know.

48. At no time is the prefect to use the services
of students in secretarial work or for any other task,
nor should he permit others to employ them.

49. The common rules for all extern students are
to be posted in a place where they can be read by all,
and besides, they are to be posted prominently in every
classroom. As a general rule they are to be read at
the beginning of each month in the class of rhetoric
and in the classes below rhetoric.

50. When there is no prefect of higher studies,
he himself shall take charge, with the rector’s approval,
of supervising the declamations which are to be given in
public and of distributing books to Jesuit students.


* * * * *

RULES FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS

1. It is to be understood that absentees on the
day assigned for composition will receive no considera-
tion in the examination unless their absence was owing
to exceptional circumstances.

2. All should come early to class so that they
can take down accurately the theme of the composition
and the instructions given by the prefect or his sub-


58


stitute, and thus be able to finish within the class
period. After silence has been enjoined, no one may
speak to another, not even to the prefect or his sub-
stitute.

3. All should come supplied with books and neces-
sary writing materials so that there will be no need to
ask anything of another during the time of writing.

4. The papers should be up to the standards of
each one’s class and clearly written in the vocabulary
and style demanded by the theme. Ambiguous expressions
will be construed unfavorably, and words omitted or has-
tily altered to avoid a difficulty will be counted as
errors.

5. Seat-mates must be careful not to copy from
one another; for if two compositions are found to be
identical or even alike, both will be open to suspicion,
since it will be impossible to discover which one was
copied from the other.

6. As a precaution against dishonesty, any stu-
dent who for good reason is permitted to leave the room
after writing has begun, must deposit with the prefect
or his substitute his theme outline and whatever he has
written.

7. After a student has finished his writing as-
signment, he should remain at his deak and carefully
check over his work, make corrections and revisions un-
til he is satisfied. Once he has handed in his composi-
tion it will be too late to make changes. Under no cir-
cumstances must his paper be returned to him.

8. Each one must fold his composition as the pre-
fect directs and write on the back his full name in
Latin. This will facilitate arranging the papers in
alphabetical order.

9. When a student brings his composition to the
prefect, he should bring all his books along and be
ready to leave the classroom at once and in silence.
Those who remain should not change their places, but
finish their work at their own desks.


59


10. If anyone has not finished his composition
in the time allotted, let him hand in what he has writ-
ten. Accordingly, all should know precisely how much
time is allowed for writing and how much for rewriting
and revising.

11. When the students come to the oral examination,
they should bring with them the textbooks which contain
the subject matter of the course. While one student is
being examined, the others should listen attentively and
refrain from prompting in any way, and from offering cor-
rections unless called upon to do so.

* * * * *

LAWS FOR PRIZES


1. In rhetoric class eight prizes are to be of-
fered: two for Latin prose, two for Latin verse, two
for Greek prose, two for Greek verse. In the class of
humanities and in the highest grammar class six prizes
are offered exactly as above, but omitting the two for
Greek verse, which is generally not practised before
rhetoric class. In all lower classes four prizes are
to be offered, but no prize will be given for Latin
verse. Moreover, in each class a prize should be awarded
to one or two who have surpassed the rest in their know-
lege of Christian doctrine. Where the number of pupils
is very large or very small, the number of prizes may
be increased or decreased provided that Latin prose be
always held in higher esteem than anything else.

2. The written competition should be spread over
several days, so that one day may be assigned for Latin
prose, another for Latin verse, and two other days, one
for Greek prose, the other for Greek verse.


60


3. All shall assemble in their respective class-
rooms on the days and at the hours appointed for writing.

4. Once the students have received the topics of
the composition, no one may leave the classroom before
the composition has been finished and handed in, and no
one may talk to another either inside or outside the
classroom. Should it be necessary for anyone to leave
the room, and permission has been granted, his theme out-
line and whatever has been written must be deposited with
the person in charge at the time.

5. If anyone wishes a longer time for perfecting
his composition, he may stay as long as he wishes, pro-
vided he does not leave the classroom and does not con-
tinue beyond sunset.

6. When a student has completed and if he wishes
revised his work and wishes to leave, he should sign
his paper, not with his real name but with a pseudonym,
and hand it in to the presiding official. On a separate
sheet he should write his full name together with the
pseudonym, and deposit this in a sealed envelope so that
his name cannot be seen.

7. The prefect of studies should faithfully guard
all the papers, and he should not unfasten the papers
containing the names of the contestants until the deci-
sion of the judges has been rendered.

8. Let three qualified and mature judges be chosen,
one of whom may be an extern if local custom calls for
it. They are not to know the names of the pupils to
whom the papers belong. After reading through all the
papers and examining them with care, they shall arrive
at a decision by majority vote and report in the order
of merit the winners in each type of composition together
with one or two next in rank.

9. In rating the papers the judges should place
organization and style ahead of mere quantity. If two
papers are of equal merit in matter and style, the longer
paper should rank above the shorter. If the tie is still
not broken, let spelling and finally penmanship be deci-
sive. If no decision can be reached, let the prize be


61


divided or doubled or awarded by lot. Should anyone
surpass all other contestants in every type of com-
position, let him receive a prize for general excel-
lence.

10. When the decision has been arrived at, let the
prefect with the rector and the general prefect open
the envelopes which contain the identification slips.
They should then double check the real and the assumed
names to avoid error, and reveal the names to no one
but the teachers.

11. Then on the appointed day, with as much eclat
and before as large a gathering of people as possible,
the names of the winners should be publicly announced.
The winners should come before the whole assemblage and
each receive his award with due honor. If any winner
is absent and has not been excused by the prefect for
a sufficiently serious reason approved by the rector, he
loses his award no matter how well he deserves it.

12. The herald shall announce the prize winners
individually in this way: “May this occasion be a happy
and auspicious one for the pursuit of the humanities and
for all students of our school! First, second, third
prize for Latin prose composition, Greek prose, Latin
verse, Greek verse has been merited by and is awarded to
___________.“ Then he shall hand the prize to the win-
ner, generally reciting a few lines of verse especially
appropriate to the occasion, which are to be taken up
and repeated by the chorus, if this can conveniently be
arranged. Lastly, if any deserve honorable mention, the
herald shall announce their names and award them honor-
able mention in place of a prize.

13. No one who has violated these regulations or
has been guilty of dishonesty shall receive any con-
sideration for his paper.


* * * * *


62

COMMON RULES FOR THE TEACHERS
OF THE LOWER CLASSES


1. The teacher shall so train the youths en-
trusted to the Society’s care that they may acquire
not only learning but also habits of conduct worthy of
a Christian. He should endeavor both in the classroom
and outside to train the impressionable minds of his
pupils in the loving service of God and in all the vir-
tues required for this service. In particular let him
pay special attention to the following points:

2. At the beginning of class let one of the
pupils recite a brief but suitable prayer. This the
teacher and pupils should follow attentively, kneeling
with heads uncovered. Before the beginning of the les-
son the teacher shall with uncovered head make the sign
of the cross.

3. Let the teacher see to it that all are present
at Mass every day and at the sermon on feast days. Be-
sides, twice a week during Lent, he should either send
them or, if such is the local custom, accompany them to
the sermon.

4. Let Christian doctrine56 be learnt and recited
from memory on Friday or Saturday, especially in the gram-
mar classes and in the other classes also if it is thought
necessary. There may be need in some places and for new
pupils to have these lessons more frequently.

5. Likewise on Friday or Saturday the teacher
shall give a homily or explain some point of Christian
doctrine for half an hour. He should especially urge
his pupils to say their daily prayers and in particular
the rosary or the little office of the Blessed Virgin,
to examine their consciences every evening, frequently
and devoutly to receive the sacraments of penance and
the holy eucharist, to avoid bad habits, to hate vice,
and to cultivate the virtues befitting a Christian.


63


6. in private talks, too, he should instill in
his pupils habits of virtue, in such a way, however,
that he will not seem to be enticing anyone to enter
our Society. If he meets with anybody who is so in-
clined, he should refer him to his confessor.

7. He should have the litany of the Blessed Virgin
recited in his class every Saturday afternoon, or, if it
is the local custom, he should lead his class to the
church for the common recitation of the litany with the
other pupils. He should encourage his pupils to culti-
vate devotion to the Blessed Virgin and to their guardian
angels.

8. He should strongly recommend spiritual read-
ing, particularly the lives of the saints. In the same
spirit he should refrain from reading in class any pas-
sage from an indecent writer and from even referring in
his prelections to anything that might scandalize his
pupils. He should do everything he can to keep them
from reading books of this sort outside of school.

9. He should see to it that each boy goes to con-
fession each month. The pupils should be told to hand
to their confessor a slip of paper on which is written
their name, surname, and class, so that by going over
the slips later he will know who failed to go to confes-
sion.

10. Let him frequently pray for his pupils and
set before them the good example of his religious life.

11. He shall obey the prefect of studies in all
that relates to studies and school discipline. Without
his advice he should not admit anyone to his class or
dismiss anyone or choose a book for prelection in class
or excuse anyone from the common class exercises.

12. Each class must keep to its own subject mat-
ter. Rules for the classes of rhetoric and humanities
will be given in a separate place. There shall be
three grammar classes, and in these a definite curricu-
lum is to be completed. Hence all the precepts of Em-
manuel [Alvarez] are to be divided into three parts and
one part assigned to each class, but in such a way that
the matter studied the previous year will always be
reviewed at the beginning of the next year, as will be
indicated further on in the rules of each teacher.


64


13. Greek grammar is to be divided thus: the
first part, assigned to the lowest class, shall begin
with the elements and include the substantive verb and
the simple verbs. The second part, for the middle gram-
mar class, shall include the contract nouns, circumflex
verbs, the verbs in mi, and the easier constructions.
The third part, for the highest grammar class, shall
include the remaining parts of speech or whatever goes
under the name of rudiments, except dialects and the
more difficult exceptions. The fourth class, humani-
ties, shall complete the whole of syntax, and the fifth
class, rhetoric, shall study versification.

14. The time schedule for rhetoric shall be at
least two hours in the morning and two in the after-
noon; for humanities and the other classes, two hours
and a half in both morning and afternoon, and on days
of recreation at least two hours. This schedule should
remain unchanged so that it will be known what classes
are in session at each hour.

15. At the provincial’s direction, however, the
schedule may be adapted to local custom, provided that
it retains the amount of time assigned in the rules of
each teacher and that once established it be followed
unchanged.

16. If a feast falls on Saturday, the exercises
of that day may be advanced a day or omitted.

17. The same time schedule shall be kept on the
weekly half-holiday when no specific exercises are as-
signed. The regular daily exercises should be shortened
in proportion or some of them omitted by turns. Some
time should be left free for a contest.

18. The practice of speaking Latin must be
strictly observed except in those classes in which the
pupils know no Latin. The pupils should never be per-
mitted to use their mother tongue in anything connected
with Olass, and demerits are to be given to those who
fail in this observance. Hence also the teacher must
always speak Latin.

19. The pupils shall recite the prelections from
memory to the decurions, whose duties are explained in
the thirty-sixth rule. If another system seems preferable


65


in rhetoric class, it may be used. The decurions them-
selves should recite their lessons to the chief decur-
ion or to the instructor. Each day the instructor
himself shall call for the lesson from some of the lazier
pupils and from the latecomers so as to check the fidel-
ity of the decurions and to keep everyone up to the mark.
On Saturday what has been learned during one or several
weeks should be publicly recited from memory. When a
book is finished, some may be chosen to recite it in
its entirety from the platform, for which they shall be
given an award.

20. Written work must be handed in by all the
grammar classes every day but Saturday. In the other
classes prose work must be handed in daily except on the
recreation day and on Saturday, poetry exercises twice
a week, on Monday and on the day following the weekly
holiday, and a Greek composition once a week in the af-
ternoon of a day chosen by the teacher.

21. Written work is ordinarily to be corrected
individually and in a low voice with each of the pupils
while the others are given time to exercise their style.
It will be useful, however, to select some exercises
each day, now from the best, again from the worst, and
at the beginning and end of the correction period to
read and examine them publicly.

22. The general method of correcting written
work is to point out mistakes in grammar, to ask how
they may be corrected, to instruct class rivals to cor-
rect publicly any mistake as soon as they notice it and
to quote the rule that has been violated, and, finally,
to praise work well done. While this correcting is
being done publicly, the pupils are to check and cor-
rect their own first copy of the exercise which they
must always bring to class in addition to the copy for
the teacher.

23. The written work of each pupil ought to be
corrected daily by the teacher, since this leads to the
very best results. If, however, there are too many
pupils for this to be practicable, he should correct
as many as possible so that those whom he passes over
one day will be called on the next. For this reason,
particularly on days when verses are handed in, he


66


should distribute some of the exercises to be co-
rrected by the rivals. To do this more satisfactorily,
each pupil should write not only his own name but that
of his rival on the reverse of the exercise. The
teacher himself shall correct some exercises in the
afternoon during the recitation of the memory lesson
and some, if he wishes, at home.

24. While he is correcting themes,57 the teach-
er should assign a variety of exercises, now one type,
now another, suited to the grade of his class; for
nothing slackens youthful diligence more than monotony.

25. The repetition of the previous day’s lesson
and of the actual assignment should be conducted in
the same way. One pupil may recite the whole lesson,
but it is better to call on many in turn so as to give
practice to all. Only the more important and useful
points should be reviewed, first by the more advanced
and then by the others. The repetition may be asked
as a continuous recitation or in reply to individual
questions of the teacher, while each rival corrects
the mistakes of his competitor or answers the question
himself if his competitor hesitates.

26. On Saturday all the prelections of the week
are to be reviewed. Should some offer to answer all
questions on the assignment or even on a whole book,
a few of these may be selected, letting the others in
twos or threes ply them with questions. The diligent
should be rewarded.

27. In the prelections,58 only the ancient clas-
sics, never the modern writers, are to be explained.
It will be of great advantage if the instructor does
not speak on the spur of the moment and at random but
only after thoughtfully writing out the prelection at
home. He should read the whole book or speech before
beginning to teach it. The method of the prelection
should in general follow this plan: first, the instruc-
tor should read the whole passage to the class, unless,
as may happen in rhetoric and humanities, it is too
long. Second, he should briefly give the gist of the
passage and when necessary its connection with what
precedes. Third, he should read over each sentence
and, if he is interpreting it in Latin, he should clear


67


up obscurities and show the relation of part to part.
He shall give the meaning, not indeed in an awkward
paraphrase, matching one Latin word with another, but
by recasting the sentence in clearer terms. If he is
interpreting the passage in the vernacular, he should
keep to the Latin word order as much as he can. In
this way the ears of his pupils become accustomed to
the Latin rhythm. If the vernacular idiom does not
permit this, he should first explain the passage liter-
ally and then in the idiom of the vernacular. Fourth,
beginning over again, he should make whatever observa-
tions on the text are suited to the class, unless he
prefers to give this commentary as he goes along.
Either during or at the end of the prelections, he
should dictate what he wishes the pupils to take down.
It should not be much, and it is usually better for
the grammar students not to take any notes unless told
to do so.

28. The prelection of a writer of history dif-
fers from that of a poet in this, that the writer of
history receives a more rapid prelection, while the
prelection of a poet is often given best in an accur-
ate oratorical paraphrase. The pupils should be ac-
customed to distinguish the style of a poet from that
of an orator.

29. In the prelection of the rhetoric of Cyprian
Soarez, of the art of versification, of Latin and Greek
grammar, and the like, the subject matter rather than
the words should be considered. Brief passages exem-
plifying the precepts and taken from the best authors
should be quoted and immediately translated.* Whenever,
particularly in the lower grammar classes, some diffi-
cult point comes up, the class should be drilled on
this point for one or more days. This may be varied
by explaining and reviewing some of the easier rules
from other parts of grammar.

30. The theme for composition59 should not be
dictated ex tempore, but should be thought out and
generally written out beforehand. It should be
modeled on Cicero as much as possible and take the

--------------------
* Pachtler inserts this one sentence from the Prague
 edition on the 1599 Ratio.


68


form of narration, persuasion, congratulation, admoni-
tion, or the like. If it is dictated word for word, it
should be written both in Latin and in the vernacular.
The teacher should have the dictation immediately read
by one of the class, and he should explain more difficult
terms and furnish the pupils with words, phrases, and
other aids. Except in rhetoric class, he should always
advise them during the dictation how each part is to be
written and punctuated. A special assignment, longer
than usual, is to be given when several feast days come
together or when the major and minor vacations are announced.

31. Class contests60 are to be highly valued and
are to be held whenever time permits, so that honorable
rivalry which is a powerful incentive to studies may be
fostered. It is customary inthese contests to have the
teacher ask the questions and the rivals correct the er-
rors or to have the rivals question one another. Indi-
viduals or groups from opposite camps, particularly from
among the officers, may be pitted against each other, or
one pupil may engage several opponents. As a rule a
private should seek out a private, an officer seek out
an officer. Sometimes, however, a private may match
his skill with an officer, and if he comes off the
victor, he should be given the rank of the defeated
officer or be awarded another prize or symbol of vic-
tory as the dignity of the class and local circumstances
dictate.

32. Special exercises serve a very useful pur-
pose. It should be a general rule in their regard that
in order to cultivate intellectual powers and not mere-
ly exercise the memory, what the pupils deliver in
public should indeed be carefully polished by their
teacher but never entirely written by him. The same is
to be said of poems that are to be exhibited publicly.
Every effort should be made to train the student speak-
ers in appropriate control of voice, gesture, and all
other actions.

33. In the classes of rhetoric and humanities,
a prelection or a Greek or Latin oration or a poem
should be given every other Saturday, one class playing
host to another. In the other classes, there should be
a prelection alone, not of tener than once a month and
not of new matter but rather the repetition of one


69


heard in class. Visitors should not be invited.

34. At different times during the year on a
day agreeable to the prefect of lower studies, there
should be a contest lasting an hour between classes
nearest to each other in grade and on subject matter
common to both. It shall be presided over by the two
teachers. Two or three or more of the best of each
class shall be the disputants. They may either be pre-
pared beforehand for the questions and answers by mu-
tual consent or they may propose whatever questions
their ingenuity suggests, or one side may refute objec-
tions, especially in rhetoric, that are proposed by the
other side.

35. Each month, or at least every other month,
officials of the camps are to be chosen and, if it
seems good, rewarded too, unless in some places this
seems unnecessary in rhetoric class. As a test for
choice of officers, the pupils shall write in prose
or, if it seems better in the higher classes, in verse
or in Greek, during an entire class period. However,
it may seem advisable to reserve half an hour for a
contest in the lower classes. Those who write the best
theme will be chosen chief magistrates. Those who are
next highest will likewise receive positions of honor
in the order of merit. To give the election an air of
erudition, the titles of the officials may be taken
from political or military offices in Greece or Rome.
The class should be divided into two fairly equal camps
to stimulate rivalry. Each camp shall have its offi-
cers opposed by those of the rival camp and each pupil
shall have his rival. The chief officers of each camp
should have the seats of honor.

36. The teacher shall also appoint decurions61
to hear the memory lesson, collect the compositions,
and mark down in a small book the names of any who fail
in the memory lesson or neglect to hand in their com-
position or have not brought two copies of the composi-
tion to class. It will also be their duty to perform
any other tasks assigned them by the teacher.

37. In preparation for the general promotion,
there should be a month’s strenuous review before the
examination. It shall be held in all the classes,


70


except possibly in rhetoric, and shall cover the main
points of the year’s work. If someone has shown him-
self far superior to the rest, the teacher should con-
sult the prefect of studies about him so that after a
private examination he may be sent to a higher class.

38. At the beginning of the year, the teacher
must give the prefect a list of his pupils in alpha-
betical order. He should occasionally check over this
list during the year to make any necessary changes,
and he should do this with particular accuracy before
the general examinations. In this list he should dis-
tinguish the class standings of pupils as best, good,
average, doubtful, allowed to remain in school, re-
quired to withdraw. He could also indicate these stand-
ings by numbers from 1 to 6.

39. Nothing helps discipline as much as the ob-
servance of the rules. Therefore the teacher must be
especially concerned that his pupils observe everything
contained in their rules and the rules respecting their
studies. Faithful observance will be better secured by
the hope of honor and reward and the fear of disgrace
than by corporal punishment.

40. The teacher should not be hasty in punish-
ing nor too much given to searching out faults. He
should rather pretend not to be aware of an infraction
when he can do this without harm to anyone. He shall
refrain not only from striking a pupil (this is the
corrector’s duty) but also from humiliating anyone by
word or act. He shall never call a pupil by any but
his own name or surname. He will find it advantageous
at times to substitute for the customary punishment
some literary task over and above the ordinary daily
lesson. He must leave to the prefect the matter of ex-
ceptional and severer punishments, especially for of-
fenses committed out of school, and also the case of
those who refuse to be punished, in particular if they
are older boys.

41. He should demand regular attendance from his
pupils. Therefore he must not excuse them to attend
public spectacles or plays. When a pupil is absent,
the teacher should send one of his fellow pupils or
some other person to make inquiries at the boy’s home.


71


Unless a satisfactory excuse is given, the absentee
should be punished. Any who are absent for several
days without excuse should be sent to the prefect and
not readmitted without his consent.

42. To avoid loss of class time during confes-
sions, three or more pupils are to be sent in the be-
ginning and as each one returns One or two more are
to be sent. An exception is made where it is the cus-
tom for all to go at the same time.

43. It is a prime duty of the teacher to see
that silence and good conduct are observed in the class-
room, that pupils are not allowed to wander about,
change seats, pass little presents or notes back and
forth, or leave the classroom, especially two or three
at a time.

44. He should take care that no one, especially
during the time of the prelection, is called out of
class by anyone. To prevent confusion and uproar at
dismissal time, he should stand watch at his desk or
at the door and see that those who sit nearest the door
leave first, or he may make other arrangements to in-
sure that all go out in good order and in silence.

45. If it is agreeable to the rector, the teach-
er should organize academies according to the rules
specially written for them in another place. Meetings
should be held particularly on feast days so as to
counteract idleness and bad habits.

46. If at times it seems necessary for a pupil’s
good to speak with his parents, let the instructor ask
the rector whether the prefect or some one else should
summon them or whether, owing to their rank or author-
ity, he should visit them.

47. He should not be on friendlier terms with
one pupil than with another. Outside of class time,
for the sake of good example, he should not speak with
his pupils except briefly, on matters of some moment,
and in an open place, not inside a classroom, but rather
at the door of the classroom or in the entrance hail or
at the gate of the college.


72


48. He shall not propose a tutor for any pupil
without the rector’s advice, nor permit his pupils to
be burdened by the tutor with other lessons at home,
but merely allow the tutor to require a repetition of
the day’s assignment.

49. He must never use a pupil as an amanuensis
or to perform any task not connected with the custom-
ary school exercises. He should not permit the pupils
to spend money in any way for the school.

50. Finally, let the teacher, with God’s grace,
be painstaking and persevering in every way, interested
in the progress of his pupils in their daily lessons
and other literary exercises. He must not regard any-
one with contempt, but assist the efforts of the poor
as much as those of the rich. He should seek the ad-
vancement of each and every one of his charges.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE TEACHER
OF RHETORIC


1. The scope62 of this class is not easily de-
fined. Its purpose is the development of the power of
self-expression. Its content spans two major fields,
oratory and poetry, with oratory taking the place of
honor. The purpose of the formation is both practical
and cultural.

It may be said in general that this class is con-
cerned mainly with the art of rhetoric, the refinement
of style, and erudition.63

Although the precepts may be studied in many au-
thors, the daily prelection shall be confined to the


73


oratorical works of Cicero, to Aristotle’s Rhetoric
and, if desired, his Poetics.

Cicero is to be the one model of style, though
the best historians and poets are to be sampled. All
of Cicero’s works are appropriate models of style,
but only his orations are to be matter for the prelec-
tion, so that the principles of his art may be observed
as exemplified in his speeches.

Erudition is to be sought in the study of histor-
ical events, ethnology, the authoritative views of
scholars, and wide sources of knowledge, but rather
sparingly according to the capacity of the pupils.

In the study of Greek attention should be paid
to the rules of prosody and to a general acquaintance
with the various authors and the various dialects.

The compendium of logic which is given to the pu-
pils toward the end of the year is not to be made the
subject of detailed explanation by the teacher of rhe-
toric.

2. The class periods64 shall be divided as fol-
lows: the first hour of the morning is for memory work.
The compositions collected by the decurions are cor-
rected by the teacher, who in the meantime sets various
tasks for the class, as described in the fifth rule be-
low. Finally, the previous prelection is reviewed.

The second hour of the morning should be spent on
a study of the rules of rhetoric if the text of an ora-
tion is to be studied in the afternoon. If an oration
is read in the forenoon, the rules should occupy the af-
ternoon period. Let the one or the other order be ob-
served regularly as elected at the start of the year.
Then will follow a repetition of the prelection and,
when desirable, a subject is given for a speech or a
poem which the pupil is required to write. If any time
remains, it is given to a contest or to revising what
was written during the first hour.

The first hour of the afternoon starts with a
repetition of the last prelection. Then a new prelec-
tion is given, of an oration if the precepts were



74


explained in the morning, or of precepts if an oration
was explained in the morning. The customary repeti-
tion follows.

The second hour of the afternoon begins with a
review of the last lesson in a Greek author, and is
followed by an explanation and quiz on new matter.
What time remains is spent, now on correcting Greek
themes, now on Greek syntax and prosody, now on a class
contest in Greek.

On recreation days, an historian or a poet or
some matters of erudition will be discussed and a re-
view will follow.

On Saturday the work of the whole week is briefly
reviewed. Then in the first hour there is an explana-
tion of a passage of history or part of a poem. In the
last hour one of the pupils gives an oration or a prelec-
tion or the class goes to listen to the class of humani-
ties or there is a debate. In the afternoon part of a
poem or a passage of Greek is reviewed.

Where a half hour is added to both morning and
afternoon, it is devoted to history or poetry, and the
usual Saturday repetitions may then be the same as on
other days or may give place to a broader repetition
or to a contest.

3. Daily memory work is necessary for a student
of rhetoric. However, since the passages covered in a
prelection are too long to be memorized verbatim, the
teacher will decide what and how much is to be memorized
and in what manner the pupils will respond if called
upon for a report. Further, it would be profitable if
now and then someone were to recite from the platform
some passages memorized from the best authors, so that
exercise of memory will be combined with practice in delivery.

4. In correcting the manuscript of a speech or
poem submitted by the pupil, the teacher should correct
any fault in oratorical or poetic structure, in elegance
and grace of expression, in transitions, rhythm, spell-
ing, or anything else. He shall likewise call attention
to incorrect, obscure, or inept handling of sources, to


75


evidence of poor taste, to lengthy digressions, and
similar faults. When a speech is finally completed,
each pupil must hand in the whole speech (which he has
already submitted part by part) transcribed in connected
or at least corrected form, so that the teacher may know
that everybody has finished the assignment.

5. While the teacher is correcting written work,
the tasks of the pupils will be, for example, to imi-
tate some passage of a poet or orator, to write a de-
scription, say, of a garden, a church, a storm, to change
an expression about in various ways, to turn a Greek
speech into Latin or a Latin speech into Greek, to turn
Latin or Greek verse into prose, to change one kind of
poem into another, to compose epigrams, inscriptions,
epitaphs, to cull phrases from good orators or poets,
both Latin and Greek, to apply figures of rhetoric to
some subject or other, to draw arguments for any sub-
ject from the commonplaces of rhetoric, and other exercises of a similar nature.

6. The prelection in this class is of two kinds:
the one looks to the art of rhetoric and explains the
application of precepts, the other deals with style
as studied in orations. Two precautions are to be ob-
served in both of these procedures. First, suitable
authors are to be chosen for study, second, standard
methods are to be employed in the analysis of the con-
tent. Enough has been said in the first rule to cover
the first point. Only Cicero is to be taken for ora-
tions, and both Cicero and Aristotle for the precepts of
rhetoric. The oration is never to be omitted. So
great is the force of oratorical precepts that their ex-
planation is to be continued through practically the
entire year. But toward the end of the year local cus-
tom may favor the substitution of some new author whose
richness of erudition and variety in subject matter at-
tracts interest. This change may be permitted. A pre-
lection on a poet may sometimes be given in place of
the prelection on the precepts or on an oration.

7. As for the method of the prelection, the rule
of rhetoric should be explained in this way. First,
the sense of the precept is to be made clear by com-
paring the opinions of commentators if the precept is
somewhat ambiguous and the commentators do not agree.


76


Second, other rhetoricians who give the same precept,
or the author himself, if he repeats the precepts else-
where, should be quoted. Third, the reason for the
rule should be considered. Fourth, its use should be
exemplified in a number of similar and striking passages
of orators and poets. Fifth, any additional material
from learned sources and from history that bear on the
rule should be cited. Lastly, the teacher should il-
lustrate by his own excellent diction and style how
the rule may be applied in writing on present-day sub-
jects.

8. If, however, a speech or a poem is being stu-
died, first, the meaning must be explained if it is ob-
scure, and the various interpretations appraised. Sec-
ond, the whole technique should be examined, that is,
the author’s skill in invention, disposition, and ex-
pression, how deftly the speaker ingratiates himself,
how appropriately he speaks, what sources of arguments
he draws upon to persuade, to embellish, to arouse emo-
tion, how often he exemplifies many principles in a
single passage, how he clothes his argument in figures
of thought, and how again he combines figures of thought
and word-figures to compel belief. Third, some passages
similar in content and expression to the one under dis-
cussion should be referred to and other orators and
poets cited who have applied the same precepts in urging
some similar argument or in narrating a similar incident.
Fourth, the argument itself should be confirmed by weighty
authorities, if it lends itself to this. Fifth, mater-
ials from history, fables, and other learned sources that
may illumine the subject should be investigated. Last
of all, attention should be directed to the use of words,
their fitness, beauty, fullness, and rhythm. All these
varied suggestions are offered, not as though the teach-
er must follow them all, but only that he may choose
those which seem most suited to his purpose.

9. The subject matter for the speech, which pu-
pils are required to write each month, should be dic-
tated either in its entirety at the beginning of the
month or in parts, week by week. The matter dictated
should be brief, touching on the several parts of the
speech, indicating the sources of arguments to be used
for confirmation and development, the principal figures
that might be employed, and, if it seems advisable, some


77


passages in good authors which could be imitated. Oc-
casionally, when a particular orator is designated for
imitation in building up a speech, the argument may be
given word for word.

10. The subject matter for verse may be given
orally or in writing. It may be no more than a topic
to write upon, or it may suggest lines of development.
The verse may be short, as for example an epigram, an
ode, an elegy, or an epistle, which can be completed
in one assignment, or it may be longer and composed,
like the speeches, in several stages.

11. Practically the same method should be fol-
lowed for the Greek theme, unless it be thought better
that for a time everything should be dictated word for
word. The theme should be assigned at least once a
week, in either prose or verse.

12. The class contest or exercise should in-
clude such things as correcting the mistakes which one
rival may have detected in the other’s composition,
questioning one another on the exercise written in
the first hour, discovering and devising figures of
speech, giving a repetition or illustrating the use
of rules of rhetoric, of letter writing, of verse mak-
ing, and of writing history, explaining some more
troublesome passages of an author or of clearing up
the difficulties, reporting research on the customs
of the ancients and other scholarly information, inter-
preting hieroglyphics and Pythagorean symbols, maxims,
proverbs, emblems, riddles, delivering declamations,
and other similar exercises at the teacher’s pleasure.

13. The Greek prelection, whether in oratory,
history, or poetry, must include only the ancient clas-
sics: Demosthenes, Plato, Thucydides, Homer, Hesiod,
Pindar, and others of similar rank (provided they be ex-
purgated), and with these, in their own right, Saints
Gregory Nazianzen, Basil, and Chrysostom. During the
first semester, orations and history are to be studied,
but may be interrupted once a week by reading some
epigrams or other short poems. Conversely, during the
second semester a poet should be explained, interrupted
once a week by reading an orator or historian. The
method of interpretation, while not entirely neglect-
ful of artistic structure and erudition, should rather


78


deal with the idiom of the language and skill in its
use. Therefore, some passages are to be dictated in
every prelection.

14. Greek syntax and prosody are to be explained,
if there is need, in the beginning of the year on al-
ternate days. Syntax is to be reviewed briefly and
only its principal headings considered.

15. For the sake of erudition, other and more
recondite subjects may be introduced on the weekly
holidays in place of thee historical work, for example,
hieroglyphics, emblems, questions of poetic technique,
epigrams, epitaphs, odes, elegies, epics, tragedies,
the Roman and Athenian senate, the military system of
the two countries, their gardens, dress, dining customs,
triumphs, the sibyls, and other kindred subjects, but
in moderation.

16. A declamation or prelection or poem or Greek
oration or both a poem and a speech should be delivered
from the platform by one or other of the pupils in the
presence of the Humanities class on alternate Saturdays
during the last half-hour of the morning.

17. Usually once a month, an oration or poem or
both, now in Latin, now in Greek, and written in a par-
ticularly elevated style, should be delivered in the
hall or the church. Or there might be a display in de-
bate, two sides arguing a case to a decision. The
manuscripts of these presentations must be looked over
and approved beforehand by the prefect of higher stu-
dies.

18. The best verses of the pupils should be posted
on the classroom walls every other month to celebrate
some more important feast day or to announce the new of-
ficials of the class or for some other occasion. If it
is the custom in any place, even shorter prose composi-
tions may be posted, such as inscriptions from shields,
churches, tombs, parks, statues, or descriptions of a
town, a port, an army, or narratives of some deed of a
saint or, finally, paradoxes. Occasionally, with the
rector’s consent, pictures may be displayed which per-
tain to the works of art described or ideas expressed in
the written exhibits.


79


19. At times the teacher can assign the writing
of some short dramatic episode instead of the usual
topic, for example, an eclogue, a scene, or a dialogue,
so that the best may afterwards be performed in class,
with the roles portioned out to different pupils. But
no costumes or stage settings are to be allowed.

20. All that has been said on the method of teach-
ing applies to the instruction of scholastics of the
Society. In addition, scholastics are to have repeti-
tions at home under the direction of their teacher, or
before some one else whom the rector shall assign, three
or four times a week for an hour and at a time the rec-
tor thinks most convenient. In these repetitions the
Greek and Latin prelections are to be reviewed, and
prose and verse in Latin and Greek are to be corrected.
They should be bidden to cultivate their memory by learn-
ing each day some passage by heart and they must read
much and attentively. Nothing, in fact, so develops
resourcefulness of talent as frequent individual prac-
tice in speaking from the platform in the hail, in
church, and in school--opportunities which they share
with externs--as well as in the refectory. Finally,
their verse compositions, approved by their teacher
and bearing their respective signatures, should be put
on exhibition in some suitable place.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE TEACHER
OF HUMANITIES

1. The scope of this class is to lay the founda-
tions for the course in eloquence after the pupils have
finished their grammar studies. Three things are re-
quired: knowledge of the language, a certain amount of


80


erudition, and an acquaintance with the basic princi-
pies of rhetoric. Knowledge of the language involves
correctness of expression and ample vocabulary, and
these are to be developed by daily readings in the
works of Cicero, especially those that contain reflec-
tions on the standards of right living. For history,
Caesar, Sallust, Livy, Curtius, and others like them
are to be taken. Virgil, with the exceptions of some
eclogues and the fourth book of the Aeneid, is the mat-
ter for poetry, along with Horace’s selected odes. To
these may be added elegies, epigrams, and other poems
of recognized poets, provided they are purged of all
immoral expressions.

Erudition should be introduced here and there as
a means of stimulating intellectual interest and relax-
ing the mind. It should not be allowed to distract at-
tention from concentrated study of the language.

A brief summary of the rules of rhetoric should
be given in the second semester from the De Arte Rhetorica
of Cyprian Soarez,65 and during this time the moral philo-
sophy of Cicero is to be replaced with some of his simpler
speeches, as for instance the Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Archia,
Pro Marcello, and the other orations delivered in the
presence of Caesar.

Greek syntax belongs to this class. Besides, care
must be had that the pupils understand Greek writers
fairly well and that they know how to compose something
in Greek.

2. This shall be the time schedule. The first
hour in the morning: Cicero and the rules of prosody
shall be recited from memory to the decurions. The
teacher shall correct the compositions gathered by the
decurions, assigning meanwhile various tasks, as explained
below in the fourth rule. Lastly, some shall recite pub-
licly and the teacher shall inspect the marks reported
by the decurions. Second hour in the morning: a short
review of the last passage commented on, then a new pre-
lection for half an hour or a little longer, and then
a quiz. If time remains, it shall be spent on a compe-
tition among the pupils themselves. Last half hour in
the morning: in the beginning of the first semester, his-
tory and prosody on alternate days; history is read rap-
idly every day when prosody is completed. In the second


81


semester, the De Arte Rhetorica of Cyprian Soarez is
explained daily, then reviewed or made the subject of
disputation.

First hour in the afternoon: poetry and the
Greek author are recited from memory, while the teacher
looks over the marks given by the decurions and corrects
either the exercises assigned in the morning or the home
tasks not yet corrected. At the end of the period a
topic and suggested outline is dictated. The hour and
a half following is equally divided between a review and
a prelection of poetry and a Greek prelection and com-
position.

On recreation days: first hour, repetition from
memory of the passage explained on the previous recre-
ation day and correction as usual of leftover written
work. Second hour: prelection followed by a quiz on
some epigrams, odes or elegies, or something from the
third book of the De Arte Rhetorica of Cyprian Soarez
on tropes, figures, and especially on rhythm and orator-
ical cadences to accustom the pupils to them in the be-
ginning of the year. Instead of this some chria-type
essay may be analyzed and studied or, finally, there
may be a class contest.

On Saturday morning: first hour, public recita-
tion from memory of prelections given during the whole
week, followed in the second hour by a discussion of
this matter. Last half hour: either one of the pupils
shall declaim or give a prelection or the class shall
attend a session of the class of Rhetoric, or a compe-
tition may be held. In the afternoon: first half hour,
recitation of poetry from memory and the catechism,
while the teacher goes over compositions, if any remain
uncorrected from the week, and inspects the records
kept by the decurions. The next hour and a half is
divided equally between a review of poetry or a prelec-
tion of a short poem, followed by a quiz, and similar
exercises in Greek. The last half hour shall be spent
in explaining the catechism or in a spiritual talk,
unless this was given on Friday, in which case what was
then displaced by the catechism should be taken at this
time.

3. In correcting written work, the teacher shall
point out any wrong use of words or any impropriety of


82


expression or fault of rhythm, any lack of fidelity
in imitating the author, any mistakes in spelling or
any other error. He should train the pupils to ex-
press a given idea in a variety of ways as a means of
enriching their vocabulary.

4. While the master is engaged in correcting
written work he should have the pupils spend their time
in such exercises as choosing phrases from previously
read passages and expressing them in different ways,
reconstructing a passage from Cicero that had been dis-
arranged for this purpose, composing verses, changing a
poem of one kind into another kind, imitating some pas-
sage, writing a Greek composition, and such other exer-
cises.

5. The prelection should be supplemented here and
there with some points of general erudition to the extent
that the passage calls for it. The teacher should concen-
trate all his effort on the idioms of Latin itself, the
precise meanings of words and their origins (in which
he should rely on recognized authorities, chiefly on
the ancients). He should explain the value of special
phrases, of variety of expression, and should encourage
careful imitation of the style of the author whose work
is being read. He should not consider it foreign to
his purpose occasionally to cite some passage in the
vernacular, if it has special value for the interpreta-
tion of the matter in hand or is noteworthy in its own
right. When he is explaining an oration, he should ad-
vert to the rules of the art of rhetoric. Finally, if
he thinks it advantageous, he may translate the whole
passage into the vernacular, but in a polished style.

6. The subject matter for written work in the
first semester should generally be dictated word for
word in the vernacular, and should take the form of a
letter. It will often be found useful to build up the
assignment by weaving together passages taken here and
there from matter previously read. Usually once a week,
however, the pupils should write from their own resources,
after some type of letter has been explained to them and
models of the type pointed out in the letters of Cicero
or Pliny. Then in the second semester their own abil-
ity should be challenged by having them write, first,
chrias, then introductions, narratives, and amplifica-
tions. A simple yet sufficiently detailed summary


83


should be given them to work with. The teacher should
dictate in Latin the matter for verse composition and
should suggest a wide variety of expressions. The
method with the Greek theme will be the same as that
for Latin prose, except that generally it should be
taken from the author and the syntax fully explained.

7. In class competition the matter shall be the
mistakes a rival has detected in his opponent’s theme,
questions on topics assigned for exercise in the first
hour, reciting from memory or varying the phrases given
them by the teacher in the prelection, reciting or ap-
plying the rules of letter writing and of rhetoric, de-
termining the quantity of syllables and giving the rule
from memory or an example from poetry, examining into
the exact meaning and derivation of words, interpreting
a passage from a Latin or Greek author, inflecting and
giving the principal parts of more difficult and irregu-
lar Greek verbs, and other similar matters, as the mas-
ter may choose.

8. Prosody should be covered rapidly, dwelling
only on what the master sees the pupils lack most, and
drilling them on the matter rather than explaining it.
Similarly, the rules rather than the words of Cyprian’s
De Arte Rhetorica are to be briefly explained, with ex-
amples added from the same book and, if possible, from
the passages commented on in class.

9. In the Greek prelection, grammar and author
shall be explained on alternate days. There should be
a brief review of the grammar studied in the highest
grammar class, followed by syntax and rules of accent.
The prose author for the first semester should be one
of the easier authors, for example, some orations of
Isocrates, of St. Chrysostom, of St. Basil, or some let-
ters of Plato and Synesius or a selection from Plutarch.
In the second semester a poem is to be explained, chosen,
for example, from Phocylides, Theognis, St. Gregory
Nazianzen, Synesius, and the like. The explanation,
however, as the grade of the class requires, should ra-
ther advance knowledge of the language than erudition.
Still, toward the end of the year, Greek prosody may
be given along with the author on alternate days, and
at times Greek poems, disarranged from their metrical
form, may be assigned to be recast.


84


10. Every second month the best verses written
by the pupils are to be posted on the walls of the
classroom to lend color to the celebration of some
special day, or to the announcement of class officers,
or to some similar occasion. Local custom may sanc-
tion the posting of even shorter pieces, such as in-
scriptions for shields, churches, tombs, gardens,
statutes, or descriptions of a town, a harbor, an army,
or narratives of a deed of some saint, or, finally,
paradoxical sayings. Occasionally, too, with the rec-
tor’s permission, pictures may be displayed referring
to the inscriptions or the compositions placed on ex-
hibition.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE TEACHER OF THE
HIGHEST GRAMMAR CLASS

1. The aim of this class is to achieve a com-
plete and perfect knowledge of grammar. The teacher
shall therefore review syntax from the beginning, add-
ing all the exceptions. Then he shall explain figures
of speech and rules of prosody. In Greek, however, he
shall cover the eight parts of speech or whatever is
embraced under the name of rudiments except dialects
and the more unusual variations. The reading matter
in prose in the first semester shall be taken from the
more important of Cicero’s letters Ad Familiares, Ad
Atticum, Ad Quintum Fratrem; in the second semester,
his De Amicitia, De Senectute, Paradoxa, and the like.
From the poets, in the first semester, some selected
and expurgated elegies and epistles of Ovid should be
taken, and in the second semester expurgated selections
from Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, the eclogues of
Vergil, or also some of the easier books of Virgil,
such as the fourth book of the Georgics and the fifth


85


and seventh books of the Aeneid. In Greek, St. John
Chrysostom, Aesop, Agapetus, and such authors are to
be taken.

2. The division of time shall be as follows.
For the first hour in the morning, recital of grammar
and Cicero from memory to the decurions, while the
teacher corrects the themes collected by the decurions,
meantime assigning various exercises to the pupils, as
described in the fourth rule below. In the second hour
the prelection of Cicero will be briefly repeated and
new matter explained, followed by a quiz for half an
hour. Finally, the subject and outline of content for
an assigned composition is dictated. During the last
half hour the grammar lesson is reviewed, a new lesson
explained and questions asked on it. Sometimes a com-
petition may occupy this period. In the first semester
there shall be a rapid review of the grammatical con-
structions seen in the previous class, then the matter
proper to this class is to be taken up. On alternate
days the general rules of prosody, omitting the excep-
tions, are to be explained. In the second semester there
must be at least a two months’ review of that part of
grammar belonging to the lowest class, and every second
day the rules of prosody already explained are to be
reviewed briefly and rapidly, leaving the necessary
amount of time for explaining the other rules. After
finishing the review of grammar, prosody is to be ex-
plained every day, including the exceptions, the verse
forms and the rules that are given for the formation
of patronymics and accent.

In the first half hour of the afternoon the poet
or Greek author is to be recited from memory, while
the teacher looks over the marks of the decurions and
corrects either the morning exercises or the homework
not yet corrected. The following hour and a half is
to be divided between a review and a prelection of the
Latin poet and a prelection and written work in Greek.
A little more than half an hour is to be devoted to
Greek. The last half hour, or whatever remains of it,
shall be spent in a class contest.

On Saturday morning there shall be a memory reci-
tation of the prelections of the whole week or of an
entire book, followed by discussion for an hour. The
final half hour shall be given to competition. The


86


same order will be kept in the afternoon except
that the catechism is also to be recited. The last half
hour shall be spent in explaining the catechism or in
a spiritual talk, unless this was given on Friday, in
which case what was then displaced by the catechism
should be taken at this time.

3. In correcting written work the teacher must
note whether there have been violations of grammar,
spelling, punctuation, whether difficulties have been
dodged, whether insufficient attention has been paid
to taste in expression or in imitation of the model.

4. While the teacher is correcting written work,
the exercises assigned to the pupils shall be, for ex-
ample, to turn into Latin passages dictated in the
vernacular either in imitation of the author or as an
exercise in the rules of syntax, to translate a passage
of Cicero into the vernacular and retranslate the same
into Latin, and then cull from the passage the choicest
expression, to propose, rival to rival, difficulties
for solution and expressions for interpretation based
on the grammar recently explained, to recast disarranged
lines of verse, or compose in verse, to practice writing
Greek, and other exercises of the same sort.

5. The method of the prelection shall be as fol-
lows. First, the teacher shall briefly state the con-
tent of the passage in Latin and in the vernacular. He
shall then interpret each sentence, first in Latin,
then in the vernacular. Third, going through the pas-
sage again from the beginning (unless he wishes to in-
sert this in the interpretation), he shall select two
or three words and carefully explain their force or
derivation and support his explanation by one or another
example taken principally from the same author. He
should analyze and explain metaphorical expressions,
and briefly comment on the mythology, history, and gen-
eral erudition that may be suggested by the passage. He
should pick out two or three examples of elegance of
diction. Finally, he should rapidly translate the pas-
sage into the vernacular. He may dictate very briefly
in Latin the sense of the passage together with his ob-
servations and examples of precision and diction.

6. The subject matter for written work is to be
dictated word for word in the vernacular, generally in


87


the form of a letter. This letter should be done in
Latin with careful attention paid to the rules of syn-
tax and the style of Cicero. When, however, the pupils
have made some progress, once a month they should write
a completely original essay, either at home in place of
the daily assignment or in school as part of the quali-
fying competition required in the choosing of class of-
ficers. Beforehand the teacher should call attention
to a given type of letter, explain its nature, point
out certain examples of such letters written by Cicero
and then dictate a few specimens composed by himself.

7. Poems should be dictated, first with words
arranged in prose order, then with new words substi-
tuted for the originals, and finally new subject matter
may be presented with suggestions for different ways
of expressing it.

8. The method of the Greek theme shall be the
same as for Latin prose, except that generally it is
to be taken from the author and its syntax indicated
in advance.

9. The Greek prelection, which should seldom
take up more than a quarter of an hour, should follow
the same form as that for Latin, with this exception,
that when a Greek author is read (it may be read on
alternate days with grammar, if the prefect approves),
individual words are to be explained and, if it seems
helpful, also a bit of easy syntax may be added.

10. The subject matter of the class competition
shall be: Point out mistakes which a student has found
in his rival’s theme, ask questions on the tasks as-
signed in the first hour of the day, recite from memory
expressions given the pupils by the teacher, ask one
another to give Latin translations or variations of
expressions in the vernacular based on the rules of
syntax or modeled on Cicero. In this exercise the one
questioned should repeat word for word the expression
proposed for translation and, after a little reflection,
translate it, not word for word, but in a complete and
connected Latin version. Again they should recite the
rules for writing letters, determine the quantity of
syllables by quoting from memory the rule of prosody
or an example from a poet, inquire into the proper use


88


or etymology of a word, interpret some passage of a
Latin or Greek author, decline nouns or conjugate verbs
in Greek, and other similar exercises at the teacher’s
discretion.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE TEACHER OF THE
MIDDLE GRAMMAR CLASS

1. The objective of this class is a complete
though not exhaustive knowledge of grammar. The teacher
explains the matter from the beginning of the second
book [of the Grammar of Alvarez] down to figures of
speech, including only the easiest exceptions, or, ac-
cording to the Roman method,66 from the syntax of verbs
down to figures of speech, with the addition of the
easier exceptions.

Greek in this class includes contract nouns, cir-
cumflex verbs, verbs in mi, and the easier verb forma-
tions.

For the prelections, only Cicero’s letters Ad
Familiares and the simplest poems of Ovid are to be
studied, and in the second semester, if the prefect ap-
proves, the Greek catechism or the Tabula of Cebes.

2. This shall be the division of time. The first
hour in the morning shall be spent in a recital of gram-
mar and Cicero from memory to the decurions, while the
teacher corrects the compositions collected by the de-
curions and assigns various exercises to be done by the
pupils in the meantime, as described in the fourth rule
below. In the second hour the prelection of Cicero is
briefly reviewed and a new one given for half an hour,
followed by a quiz. At the end a theme for a composi-
tion is dictated. There will be a review during the


89


last half hour of some matter from the first book of
grammar, such as the declension of nouns, then suc-
cessively perfects and supines. This review may be
carried out by means of a class contest.

For the first hour of the afternoon there will
be a recitation from memory of Latin and Greek grammar
and, on appointed days, of poetry. Meanwhile the
teacher looks over the marks of the decurions and cor-
rects the exercises assigned that morning or any home-
work not yet corrected. At the end of the hour, the
last lesson of grammar, and on alternate days, of poetry
are reviewed. During the first half hour of the next
period, syntax will be explained and repeated, but in
the second semester syntax again and also poetry on
alternate days. Greek is taught during the next half
hour. The final half hour shall be given to class
competition or other exercise.

On Saturday morning for the first hour the lessons
of the entire week or of an entire book are to be re-
cited from memory, followed in the second hour by a
discussion of this matter. The last half hour shall be
spent in a class contest. The same order is kept in
the afternoon, except that during the first hour along
with grammar and poetry the catechism is recited. The
final half hour shall be given to a lesson on the cate-
chism or occasionally to a spiritual exhortation, un-
less this was given on Friday, in which case what was
then displaced by the catechism should be taken at this
time.

3. In correcting written work, the teacher should
point out errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation,
and any difficulties that have been passed over. He
should judge the whole exercise in the light of the gram-
matical rules and, whenever the opportunity offers, he
should recall to the pupils’ memory the conjugations
and the rudiments.

4. While the teacher is correcting the written
work, he should assign the pupils such exercises as
the following: turn into Latin passages dictated in
the vernacular either in imitation of the author and
especially as an exercise in the rules of syntax, trans-
late a passage of Cicero into the vernacular and re-
translate the same into Latin, match rivals and propose


90


difficulties for solution and expressions for inter-
pretation based on the grammar recently explained,
practice writing Greek, and other exercises of the
same sort.

5. In the review of the matter previously seen,
the teacher shall sometimes take occasion in any way
he wishes to demand of the pupils the more difficult
points in declensions, conjugations, and rules of
grammar.

6. The method for the prelection of Cicero,
which should in general cover no more than seven lines,
is as follows. First, the teacher shall read the whole
passage without interruption and give the sense very
briefly in the vernacular. Second, he should give a
word for word interpretation of the passage in the
vernacular. Third, starting at the beginning, he
should point out the structure and then, separating
the sentence into parts, he should show how the verbs
govern the various cases and how a great deal of the
passage exemplifies the rules of grammar already ex-
plained. He may make an observation here and there on
Latin usage, but very briefly. He should explain the
metaphors by examples well known to everybody. Lastly,
he should select one or two expressions and dictate
only these to the class along with the general sense
of the passage. Fourth, he should again run through
the passage in the vernacular.

7. Matter for the written work should be dic-
tated in the vernacular, word for word, clearly, and
not more than seven lines in length. It should aim at
practice in the rules of grammar and at imitation of
Cicero. Sometimes the pupils should be required to
add to their themes the translation of a short passage
from Cicero or the conjugation of a Greek tense or the
declension of a Greek noun.

8. The grammar prelection should take only one
rule at a time, with the addition at most of one of
the shorter notes or exceptions.

9. The same proportion is to be observed in
teaching Greek. It seems helpful to add vernacular
equivalents to the cases and persons and for the most
part to explain everything in the vernacular.


91


10. During the class competition pupils shall
call attention to the mistakes a pupil has discovered
in his rival’s theme, ask questions on the exercises
they have been engaged on during the first hour, re-
cite from memory expressions given them by the teacher,
ask one another the translation of vernacular phrases
according to the rules of syntax or in imitation of
Cicero (the phrase asked should at once be repeated in
the exact words by the one questioned, and after brief
reflection he should translate it, not word for word,
but by means of a neat Latin phrase or sentence), in-
flect the more difficult nouns and verbs, especially
those which have occurred in the prelections, in either
regular or changed order of cases and tenses, and either
alone or with modifying adjective, noun or pronoun, re-
cite rapidly from memory past participles and supines,
and other similar exercises as the teacher may decide.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE TEACHER OF THE
LOWEST GRAMMAR CLASS

1. The objective of this class is a perfect know-
ledge of rudiments and a beginning knowledge of syntax.
The class starts with the declensions and goes up to
the conjugation of ordinary verbs. Where there are two
separate divisions in this class, the lower division
will study nouns, verbs, rudiments, the fourteen rules
of construction, and the genders and nouns from the
first book; the higher division will study the matter
on declensions (omitting the footnotes) and the matter
on past participles and supines from the first book,
and from the second book the introduction to syntax
(omitting the exceptions) as far as impersonal verbs.
In Greek, the lower division will learn to read and
write; the higher will learn the ordinary nouns, the
substantive and barytone verb. The prelection takes in


92


only the easiest letters of Cicero carefully selected
for this purpose and, if possible, separately printed.

2. The order of class time is the following. In
the first hour of the morning there will be recitation
from memory of Cicero and of grammar to the decurions.
The written work, gathered by the decurions, is cor-
rected by the teacher, who will assign exercises to be
done in the meantime, as specified below in the fourth
rule. In the second hour there is a brief repetition
of the prelection on Cicero and, for half an hour, ex-
planation and review of new matter. Lastly, subject
matter for a theme is dictated. In the last half hour
of the morning, each division has an explanation and
repetition of some matter from its own assignment in
the first book. This explanation may be given to each
division on alternate days or to both daily. After-
wards the pupils shall be questioned on all this mat-
ter either by the teacher or by themselves in competi-
tion.

On days when no new grammatical rule will be ex-
plained in the afternoon (and each rule is to be im-
pressed on mind and memory for several days together),
the morning prelection is to be transferred to the af-
ternoon and the entire last half hour of the morning
given over to a class contest or other exercise.

In the first hour of the afternoon there is to
be a recital from memory of Latin and Greek grammar,
while the teacher inspects the marks assigned by the
decurions and for half an hour at most corrects writ-
ten assignments of the first morning period or what re-
mains to be corrected of the written homework. At the
end there shall be a review of the previous grammar
prelection. In the second hour, syntax is explained
in the higher division, and in the lower the basic
rules on the gender of nouns and afterwards the four-
teen rules of construction. A little more than a quar-
ter of an hour is given to Greek. The last half hour
is devoted to a competition or to a consideration of
something dictated on the rules of grammar.

In the first hour on Saturday morning, the matter
seen during the past week should be publicly recited
from memory. During the second hour it should be re-
viewed. During the last half hour there is a contest.


93


The same order holds for the afternoon, except that
during the first hour, together with grammar, the cate-
chism is recited, and in the last half hour the cate-
chism is explained or a spiritual exhortation given,
unless this was given on Friday, in which case the
time should usually be spent on whatever was displaced
by the catechism.

3. In correcting written work, the teacher should
point out mistakes in grammar, spelling, and punctua-
tion, and any dodging of difficulties. He should take
grammatical correctness as his standard of judgment,
and whenever the occasion offers he should call atten-
tion to errors in conjugations and declensions.

4. Exercises to be assigned the pupils while the
teacher is correcting the written work shall consist,
for example, in translating into Latin something in
the vernacular affording practice in the use of the
rules of syntax, in translating a passage of Cicero
into the vernacular and then retranslating it into
Latin, in one rival questioning another on the gramma-
tical precepts, particularly those recently studied,
and on expressions exemplifying these precepts, in ar-
ranging or composing examples of the concords, in writ-
ing something in Greek, and in other things of the same
sort.

5. In the review of the prelection, the teacher
should at times use the occasion in whatever way he
chooses to demand of the pupils the declensions and
conjugations and a review of grammar.

6. The prelection of Cicero, which will cover
no more than about four lines, shall be done as follows.
Let the teacher first read the entire passage without
interruption, and then give the sense of the passage
very briefly in the vernacular. In the second place,
let him interpret the passage word for word in the
vernacular. In the third place, starting from the be-
ginning, let him indicate the structure and then let
him take up each phrase or clause and show which case
each verb governs. Let him examine most of the passage
to show how it exemplifies the rules of grammar already
explained. Let him make one or other comment on Latin
usage, but briefly. Let him explain the metaphors by
well-known parallels. He should not dictate anything
except perhaps the general sense of the passage. In


94


the fourth place, let him again run through the passage
in the vernacular.

7. The written assignment is to be dictated word
for word in the vernacular. Its meaning should be clear
and it should usually be no more than four lines long.
Its aim should be practiced in applying the rules of
grammar. Sometimes the pupils should be required to
add to it the translation of a short passage from Cicero
or some expression illustrating the rules of syntax or
some parallel expression from their elementary Greek,
or something else of the sort.

8. The grammar prelection should cover at most
only one precept at a time, and until this is well mas-
tered no other should be taken up.

9. The class contest shall consist in checking
the mistakes which each rival has detected in the
other’s theme, in alternately quizzing each other on
matter which was studied during the first hour, or in
testing each other on translating vernacular expres-
sions into Latin. In this exercise the one who is to
answer should repeat the expression aloud, and then af-
ter a moment’s reflection, translate it not in a mechan-
ical word for word manner, but by means of a neat Latin
phrase or sentence. Again they should check up on their
knowledge of vocabulary and inflections, especially in
regard to verbs and nouns found in a passage recently
studied. These inflections may be reviewed either by
following the paradigm order or by skipping about; and
adjectives may be combined with nouns. They may also
ask for basic rules together with examples, and match
vernacular forms with the corresponding Latin and vice
versa. They may change active verbs into the passive
form or be asked to identify past participles and supines,
genders and cases, and invent similar problems with the
approval of the teacher.


* * * * *


95


RULES OF THE SCHOLASTICS

OF THE SOCIETY


1. The scholastics of our Society should make
it their chief endeavor to preserve purity of conscience
and a right intention in their studies. They should
not seek anything in their studies except the glory of
God and the good of souls. In their prayers they should
frequently beg for grace to make progress in learning
so as at length to fulfill the Society’s hope that by
their example and learning they will become able work-
ers in the vineyard of Christ our Lord.

2. They should keep firm and constant their reso-
lution to apply themselves to their studies. Just as
they must take care that in their zeal for study their
love of solid virtues and of religious life does not
become lukewarm, so too they must persuade themselves
that while they are in the colleges they can do nothing
more pleasing to God than to devote themselves whole-
heartedly to studies with the intention stated above.
They should be convinced that the very labor of study-
ing, undertaken out of obedience and charity, as it
should be, is a work highly meritorious in the sight
of the divine and supreme Majesty even though they may
never have occasion to employ what they have learned.

3. They must apply themselves to those branches
of knowledge and attend the lectures of such profes-
sors as the superior determines. All should follow
faithfully the time order and the method of study pre-
scribed by the prefect of studies or their professor.
They are to use only the books given them by the pre-
fect.

4. They should be faithful in attendance at
the lectures, diligent in preparing for them before-
hand and afterwards in reviewing them. They should
ask about points they do not understand and note down
what may be useful later on to assist the memory.


96


5. They are to participate in the customary
disputations of the classes which they attend, and in
doing so should try to distinguish themselves by their
learning and modesty.

6. Besides, all must be present at the private
disputations and repetitions held daily, and the dis-
putants must be exact in obeying the one who presides.

7. When they go to attend public classes, they
should go and return with one another and conduct them-
selves with such interior and exterior modesty as will
benefit themselves and be an example to others.

8. When they have permission to speak with ex-
tern students, their conversation should be only about
studies and spiritual matters as shall be judged most
profitable for everyone concerned to the greater glory
of God.

9. All, especially the students of the humani-
ties, must speak Latin. They are to commit to memory
what their teachers have assigned, and they should dili-
gently cultivate their style in writing.

10. No one should apply himself to reading or
writing for more than two hours without taking a brief
respite.

11. During the hours devoted to private study,
those who are attending the courses of the higher
faculties should read over at home the notes they have
taken in class to make sure that they understand them.
Each should test his understanding by proposing objec-
tions to himself and attempting to answer them. He
should take note of what he cannot answer so that he
can ask questions or argue the point.


* * * * *


97

INSTRUCTION FOR THOSE ENGAGED IN THE
TWO-YEAR REVIEW OF THEOLOGY

1. They shall observe the Rules of the Scholas-
tics, except those which concern attendance at lectures
and repetitions in the schools, with the same regular-
ity as other students. They must be especially careful
that in their ardor for study they do not allow their
love of solid virtue to grow cold.

2. They shall attend cases of conscience, all
public disputations, and even the monthly disputations
just as other students of theology.

3. They must not only be present at the monthly
disputations of the philosophers, but if the professors
are absent they may also summarize the objections and
answers at them as well as at the weekly disputations
of theologians.

4. According to the method of study and the time
schedule prescribed them by the prefect, they shall
give diligent and painstaking study to the material
which was not treated at all in their course or only
touched upon. They should make use of the commentaries
by authors who have treated this material more thorough-
ly.

5. They should then study the principal treatises
of the whole of theology, such as those on the vision
of God, the divine knowledge, predestination, the Trin-
ity, from the first part of St. Thomas’ Summa. They
should cover other parts of the Summa in the same way.
In this study they should carefuIIy weigh what others
have written and should make their own digest of the
chief divisions and fundamental theses of theology
which have a bearing on many important disputed ques-
tions. They must keep firmly in mind, however, what the
Society has decreed in regard to following the doctrine
of St. Thomas Aquinas.

6. They should formally write out certain theses,
with their postulates, conclusions, and answers to


98


objections, employing the scholastic method, as if they
were to lecture on them before a class. These they
should submit to the prefect of studies every month,
or at least every other month, so as to receive his
guidance.

7. They may in fact occasionally give such lec-
tures either in private before our own professors or
at the repetitions of the theologians, lecturing for
about three quarters of an hour. The professors who
are present ought to raise questions at the end of the
lecture. If it seems worth while, such lectures may
be delivered in the refectory.

8. They may also prepare similar presentations
on some celebrated topic to be treated in at most ten
lectures. Classes and class time should be so arranged
that any of the theological students who wish may at-
tend.

9. A time should be set aside for them to hold
four disputations on particular parts of theology and
one comprehensive disputation embracing the whole of
theology. The first disputation should be scheduled
for the early part of the first semester, the second
at its close. The other disputations are to be sche-
duled in the same way, one each semester, but in such
wise that the comprehensive disputation will conclude
the final semester.

10. They are to be at liberty in these dispu-
tations to take issue with the views of their profes-
sors and, if they wish, to defend their own, provided
that their views do not conflict with the doctrine of
St. Thomas, as stated in the decree of the Fifth Con-
gregation.67 They must, however, come to an agreement
well beforehand with the prefect of studies and the
presiding officer regarding their dissenting views
and the postulates and proofs they intend to offer in
defending them. In order to show their abilities to
better advantage, the presiding officer should allow
them to answer freely and should not interrupt the
discussion unless it is obviously necessary.

11. They are to understand that during these
two years they will be expected not only to become
learned and ready in theology but likewise to acquire


99


the ecclesiastical background knowledge which a the-
ologian is really expected to know.

12. Accordingly, they should have a certain
time each day for the careful reading of the Holy
Scriptures, the decrees of the Councils, theological
controversies, and canon law. They should take systema-
tic notes on whatever appears important. They are not,
however, to make any formal preparation for preaching,
but on occasion they should lecture on some topic con-
nected with their studies, either in the refectory or
elsewhere as the superior shall decide.

13. They are to pass over points of civil law
which they may meet with in their study of canon law
and spend all their time on ecclesiastical law.

14. They should especially apply themselves to
that subject which they find most appealing, being
careful to have their superior’s advice in the matter.
But they are not on this account to neglect prescribed
areas in other fields.


* * * * *

RULES FOR THE TEACHER’S
ASSISTANT OR BEADLE

1. The duty of the beadle is to perform faith-
fully any functions the teacher may require of him,
especially assignments connected with class exercises.

2. He shall see to it that the classroom and
the teacher’s seat are clean, that a religious paint-
ing hangs in the room, that there are a sufficient num-
ber of benches, that they are clean and properly ar-
ranged, that broken or damaged benches are repaired,
that special seats are set apart for students of the


100


Society as well as for students of other religious
orders from those of the extern students, that the
classrooms are opened at the proper time.

3. He shall give timely notice to those who
are to take their turn in disputations, repetitions,
defense of theses, and he must perform other similar
tasks assigned him by the teacher.

4. He shall give about a week’s notice to those
who are to defend in the weekly disputations. He shall
have the theses written out in good time, taken to the
professor for correction and to the prefect for approval.
When they are returned, corrected and approved, he shall
let the defendant know how many written copies he will
need to prepare. On the morning of the day prior to
the disputation he shall post one of these in public,
legibly and neatly written, and then distribute the
other copies to the disputants.

5. He shall always have a watch with him at the
lectures and disputations and notify the prefect and
the professor when the time is up, so that each dis-
putant may keep to the time allotted to him. He shall
give the sign for the disputants to begin and conclude,
as the prefect shall direct.

6. He shall be responsible for the proper prepar-
ation of the hall for public disputations according to
academic custom. He shall assign places to guests who
are in attendance either to propound objections or to
honor the occasion by their presence.

7. When he notices that any students of the So-
ciety are absent from lectures, repetitions, disputa-
tions, or that they are remiss in anything pertaining
to the order of studies or discipline, he shall report
it to the superior.


* * * * *


101


RULES FOR EXTERN STUDENTS


1. Those who attend the schools of the Society
of Jesus in pursuit of learning should be convinced
that with God’s help, we shall make as great effort to
advance them in the love of God and all other virtues
as we shall do to perfect them in the liberal arts.

2. Each student shall attend the class to which
after examination he shall be assigned by the prefect
of studies.

3. They shall go to confession at least once a
month, assist at daily Mass at the time appointed, and
be present in a becoming manner at the sermon on feast
days.

4. They shall attend the weekly instructions in
Christian doctrine and learn the lessons in the text-
book assigned by the teacher.

5. None of our students shall enter the school
with weapons, daggers, knives, or anything else which
may be forbidden by reason of place or circumstances.

6. Students must never indulge in swearing, ridi-
cule, insult, detraction, falsehood or forbidden games.
They must keep away from places of ill repute and from
such as have been proscribed by the prefect. In short,
they should not do anything that is contrary to good
morals.

7. They should understand that the teachers may
employ the corrector to punish them when in matters
concerning discipline or studies, commands and warnings
are of no avail. Those who refuse to accept the pun-
ishments or do not give promise of reform or are trouble-
some to others or set a bad example shall be expelled
from school.

8. All must obey their teachers and must faith-
fully follow in class and at home the plan and method
of study prescribed for them.


102


9. Pupils must apply themselves seriously and
consistently to their studies; they must be prompt and
regular in coming to class, and faithful in paying at-
tention to the prelections, in repeating the matter
explained, and in performing the tasks assigned. If
there is anything they do not clearly understand or are
in doubt about, they should seek the assistance of the
teacher.

10. In the classroom they should not move about,
but each must remain at the place assigned him and be
well behaved and quietly intent on his own work. No
one is to leave the classroom without permission of
the teacher. All disfiguring or marking of benches,
the professor’s chair, seats, walls, doors, windows,
or other furniture by drawing, writing, or carving is
strictly forbidden.

11. They should shun the company of those whose
conduct is immoral or even questionable, and they
should associate only with those whose example in
studies and in conduct may help them.

12. They should refrain altogether from reading
pernicious as well as worthless books.

13. They may not attend public spectacles, come-
dies, plays, or public executions of criminals. They
must not take part in theatricals outside the school
without obtaining permission of their teachers or the
prefect of studies.

14. All should strive to preserve sincerity of
soul and purity of conscience and be especially exact-
ing in their observance of the divine law. They should
frequently and sincerely commend themselves to God, to
the Blessed Mother of God, to the other saints, and
earnestly implore the protection of the angels, in par-
ticular of their guardian angel. They should behave
well at all times and in all places, but especially in
church and the classroom.

15. Finally, let them so conduct themselves in
word and action that everyone may easily understand
that they are no less earnest in acquiring virtue and
integrity of life than in making progress in learning.


103


RULES OF THE ACADEMY


1. By the word “academy” we mean a group of
students chosen from the entire student body on the
basis of their devotion to learning who will meet
under a Jesuit moderator to take part in special ex-
ercises connected with their studies.

2. All who belong to the Sodality of the Blessed
Virgin are by the fact of this membership considered
eligible for an academy, as are also any religious who
attend our schools. Besides, where custom sanctions
it, the rector may approve the admission of others
who are not members of the sodality or even students
in our school.

3. Members of the academy ought to set an ex-
ample to the rest of the students by excelling in
virtue and piety, in diligence in their studies, and
in observance of the rules of the school.

4. The rector of the college shall choose a
suitable moderator for each academy either from among
the teachers or from other members of the Society.

5. Students of philosophy and of theology to-
gether may form one academy, students of rhetoric and
humanities another, and students of the grammar classes
a third, provided that these latter are not too numer-
ous and consequently too unequal in learning to be
able to profit from common programs; otherwise each
class may have its own academy.

6. The benefits of an academy accrue princi-
pally from regular attendance and eagerness to take
part in the programs. Hence, members who are rather
frequently absent or refuse to take their turn on the
programs or are unruly and a source of trouble and a
hindrance to others should be dismissed.

7. The officers of each academy shall be elected
every third or fourth month by a majority of votes cast
by the members in a secret ballot. The following shall


104


be elected: the president of the academy, two coun-
selors, and a secretary. Additional officers may be
elected and duties assigned them according to the num-
ber of members, local customs, and the judgment of
the rector of the college.

8. The president of the theologians’ academy
should generally be a student of theology, but if at
times it seems better to elect a student of philosophy,
he should at least be from the class of metaphysics.
Likewise when the academy for students of rhetoric
and of grammar have members from several classes, the
president should as a rule be chosen from the higher
class, or he may be chosen in rotation from the several
classes, as the rector of the college thinks best. How-
ever, a student should be chosen who stands out among
his fellow students in moral excellence, talent, and
learning. It shall be his duty to promote the inter-
ests of the academy, to lead the others in the practice
of virtue and devotion to the work of the academy, and
to make, either at the beginning or the close of his
term, one of the major presentations of the academy.
If the president of the academy of theologians is a
student of theology, he may, in the professor’s absence,
direct the philosophers in a disputation and summarize
and press further the objections and answers of the
disputants.

9. The counselors shall be next to the presi-
dent in rank and dignity, and in the president’s ab-
sence the first counselor shall take his place. If
the first counselor is also absent, the second shall
preside. The counselors shall perform the duties as-
signed them by the moderator either personally or through
the president.

10. The secretary shall carefully keep all the
records of the academy. He shall keep in a book a
list of the members in the order in which they have
been admitted. In the same book he shall write the
names of the officers as they are elected, the minutes
of the meetings of the academy, and the names of the
members who have in some way distinguished themselves.
He shall keep in his files the speeches, verses, and
poems written by the students of rhetoric and selected
by the moderator for public display. In good season


105


he shall notify those whom the moderator has selected
to conduct exercises of the academy, so that they may
prepare themselves. However, in the theologians’ aca-
demy it may seem advisable to have this done through
the beadle. At the close of each meeting he shall
announce publicly what exercises are scheduled and
who are to participate in them. It shall be his duty
to post in public and in good time the theses to be
defended, and, for the academy of the rhetoricians,
the proposed problems and moot points that are to be
solved.

11. Three or four times a year--that is, after
the election of a new president--consultations should
be held, either of all the members or at least of the
officers and moderator, for the purpose of promoting
the interests of the academy and removing any obstacles
that seem to impede its progress.

12. The rules of the academy are to be read
either at the meetings of the consultants or before
the election of a new president. These rules are to
be posted on a bulletin board or kept in the book of
minutes of the academy. In this same book the list
of members is to be entered immediately after the rules.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE MODERATOR
OF THE ACADEMY

1. The moderator should foster virtue as well
as love of learning in the members of the academy.
He will do this by his own example and as occasion
offers in private conversation.


106


2. He shall see that the rules are faithfully
observed and in particular that the members regularly
apply themselves in earnest to the daily activities
of the academy.

3. It shall be his duty to see to it that all
the members of the academy take their turns, as far
as may be, in the various types of programs.

4. He must not abolish established customs nor
introduce new ones without the authority of the rector
of the college. He must not make any important deci-
sions without informing the rector and he should care-
fully carry out his directives.

5. He shall so arrange the time of the meetings--
for disputations, repetitions, and other exercises--
as not to conflict with the meetings of the sodality.
In this way all the members of the academy may conven-
iently attend the meetings of both organizations. For
this reason also no one should be detained in confer-
ence during the time of a sodality meeting except for
a very serious reason.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE ACADEMY OF THEOLOGIANS
AND PHILOSOPHERS

1. The exercises of this academy are customar-
ily of four kinds: daily repetitions of matter seen
in class, disputations, academic lectures or the dis-
cussion of debatable questions, more formal disputa-
tions at which theses are defended in public.

2. Repetitions shall last for about an hour on
all class days excepting the days of monthly disputa-


107


tions. They are to be held at the most convenient
hours. During Lent, however, time must be left free
at least twice a week for a sermon.

3. The different classes should hold repetitions
separately, the students of theology forming one group,
the philosophers forming three if there are that many
professors. At the repetitions, one or two members
of the academy should review the matter covered in
class and one or two pose objections. For the repeti-
tions in theology, the moderator of the academy should
preside, or his assistant, or at least one of the more
advanced theology students appointed by the rector of
the college. For the students of philosophy, the pre-
siding members in each group should generally be a
Jesuit student of theology, likewise appointed by the
rector of the college.

4. Disputations are to be scheduled once a week
when there are only a few in the academy, twice a week
when there are many members. They should be scheduled
on the weekly holiday or on both the weekly holiday
and on Sunday. One student, generally a philosopher,
should defend a thesis for an hour on Sunday afternoon,
while two object. On the recreation day, two or three
are to defend theses for two hours, one a theology stu-
dent, the others, students of philosophy, while as many
or more will offer objections.

5. If only one student of theology defends, he
will always include some theses in philosophy. A stu-
dent of metaphysics will defend theses in physics and
logic, and a student of physics will also defend theses
in logic. Objectors against theologians should be
theologians; against, philosophers, the first objector
should be from the next higher class, and the second
a member of the same class as the defendant.

6. If the teacher of the defendant attends the
disputations, whether of philosophy or theology, he
shall preside; otherwise the moderator of the academy
or his assistant shall preside.

7. Lectures, too, may be given occasionally.
A member of the academy will deliver from the chair a
scholarly report that he has worked out on his own


108


initiative or some original problem. He should pre-
sent and establish arguments for both sides of the
question and afterwards entertain counter-arguments
from one or more members. Lectures of this sort must
first be shown to the moderator of the academy for
his approval.

8. The president of the academy or some other
member chosen by the moderator may at times hold a
more formal disputation, at Christmas, for example,
at Easter, Pentecost, or some other opportune time.
The matter defended in such disputations should be
some portion of philosophy or theology stated in the
form of theses. The professor should preside.

9. These disputations should be conducted with
a certain degree of ceremony. The defender should
begin with a formal introduction and end with a simi-
larly prepared conclusion, both of which should like
all public utterances be checked and approved by the
prefect. To make the event more notable, guests should
be invited to attack the conclusions of the defendant,
and others may be invited as auditors.

10. About a month prior to the opening of classes,
the rector, if he wishes, may appoint a member of the
Society or have the moderator appoint a member of the
academy to give for fifteen days an introduction to
or epitome of philosophy to those who are to begin
their philosophical course.

11. Before any theses, whether for the more
formal disputations or for the weekly disputations, are
defended or posted, they must be looked over by the
moderator of the academy and by the defendant’s pro-
fessor.


* * * * *


109


RULES OF THE MODERATOR OF THE ACADEMY OF
THEOLOGIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS


1. Besides the common directives laid down for
all moderators in the rules of the academy, each mod-
erator should see to it that in the daily repetitions
the method of reviewing, proving, and discussing be
identical with that used by members of the Society in
repetitions at home. In public disputations, however,
and in classroom defenses, the customary procedure is
to be followed.

2. Accordingly, the moderator shall pay fre-
quent visits to individual groups to see to it that
they are functioning in a serious and proper manner,
and that each individual is performing his part cor-
rectly. Let him give specific directions where such
directions are needed.

3. It will be helpful to give more frequent
practice to those who are preparing for their com-
prehensive examinations in philosophy and theology,
or who will present a formal defense before the academy.
He should also advise and direct them so that they may
be the better prepared.

4. Should the rector of the college give him
an assistant, he may divide his responsibility for
his work with the academy in such a way that the as-
sistant will preside over the repetitions in theology
and on alternate days, especially on holidays, take
charge of the disputations. He may also use the serv-
ices of the assistant to carry out other details con-
nected with the everyday meetings and the more formal
sessions of the academy.


* * * * *


110


RULES OF THE ACADEMY OF STUDENTS OF

RHETORIC AND HUMANITIES


1. The academy shall meet on Sunday or, where
it is more convenient, on a recreation day, in a
place assigned by the rector of the college.

2. The programs scheduled by the academy shall
in general be as follows: the moderator, as he shall
judge timely, may lecture on or throw open for dis-
cussion some suitable topic or passage from an author
or he may explain some more challenging principles of
oratory, as given by Aristotle, Cicero, or other rhe-
toricians, or he may rapidly read through an author
and question the members of the academy on what he
has read, or he may propose problems to be solved,
and conduct other exercises of the sort.

3. Often, too, he should omit such exercises
and have the members themselves deliver speeches or
recite poems or give declamations, either from memory
or ex tempore. With his approval, they may stage mock
trials. They may deliver a lecture and answer ques-
tions on it proposed by two or more of the members.
Again they may defend theses and offer objections to
them in an oratorical rather than a dialectical style.
They may compose symbols or mottoes or again epigrams
or brief descriptions. They may compose and solve
riddles, or have a drill in invention, each one either
on the spur of the moment or after reflection suggest-
ing sources of arguments on a proposed topic. Or as
practice in style they may suit metaphors or sentence
patterns to a suggested argument. They may write out
the plot of dialogues or tragedies, or the plan of a
poem. They may imitate a whole speech or poem of a
famous orator or poet. They may propose a symbol of
some sort and have each member contribute to its
meaning. They may assign the various books of some
author and have each member of the academy make a se-
lection of thoughts and expressions from the book as-
signed to him. Finally, let them cultivate the gift
of eloquent expression and whatever is associated
with its practice.


111


4. It will be found worth while occasionally
to have some of the better and more ambitious of these
exercises or prelections, declamations, and defenses
of theses presented, especially by the president of
the academy, with a degree of external ceremony in
the presence of a distinguished audience.

5. At times prizes may be awarded to those
who do especially well in writing, reciting, or solv-
ing enigmas and puzzling problems.

6. More formal awards may be given to all the
members of the academy once a year. The expense may
be met by contributions or in whatever way the rector
of the college thinks best.

7. At least once a year, some feast of the
Blessed Virgin, designated by the rector of the col-
lege, should be celebrated with a great display of
speeches, poems, verses, as well as symbols and mot-
toes, posted on the walls of the college.


* * * * *

RULES OF THE ACADEMY OF STUDENTS OF
THE GRAMMAR CLASSES

1. Generally the moderator will take some point
of grammar which the members are later to study in
class, or something from a graceful and pleasing writer,
and give a prelection on it. He may hold a repetition
or a drill on matter already explained in class.

2. One member should come each time prepared to
open the meeting of the academy by answering questions
on topics discussed at the last meeting. Three or
more should propose difficulties or call on him to


112


translate some sentences from the vernacular into Latin.
Following the same procedure, the members should imme-
diately review the prelection given by the moderator.

3. Frequent and spirited contest should be co-
nducted. Sometimes the members will be tested on their
literary style, sometimes on memory work, sometimes
phrases will be expressed in a variety of ways, or some
specimens of verse or precepts of Greek grammar may be
discussed, or other similar exercises held at the dis-
cretion of the moderator.

4. Occasionally some of the members, or even
all of them, should come prepared to recite from memory
some short apothegm or to narrate some event.

5. Now and then members should be called upon
to recite from the platform the prelections which their
teacher gave them in class, adding a short introduction
and, if it seems good, also some commentary.

6. It will be of advantage on occasion to have
prelections given by members, and especially by the
president of the academy, with a little greater solem-
nity and before a larger audience than usual. To this
exercise may be added a contest between two or three
of the members, and prizes may be awarded afterwards
in private.

7. The moderator can exact some literary task
in place of penalty, and he may read in public the
names of those who have been slack or not well behaved.

8. Finally, these activities should be so
handled and so varied in nature that in addition to
their intrinsic value they may afford pleasure to the
members and hold their interest. They will thus in-
spire a greater love of learning.


* * * * *


 

NOTES TO THE TRANSLATION


1. The highest authority in the Jesuit Order is
the General. He is elected in a General Congregation
composed of delegates representing the whole Order in
a ratio of three delegates from each of the territorial
divisions into which the Order is divided. He holds
office for life. Next in line of authority are the Pro-
vincials, each of whom has under his charge the Jesuit
institutions and members of a given territory or province.
A Provincial’s term of office is usually limited to six
years. Directly under the Provincial are the Rectors,
who individually have jurisdiction over single institu-
tions.

2. This unchanging Christian aim is enunciated
time and again in Jesuit documents; for instance in the
Fourth Part of the Constitutions, ch. 12, no. 1: “Since
the end of the Society and of its studies is to aid our
fellowmen to the knowledge and love of God and to the
salvation of their souls . . .“ So too in ch. 16, n.
4: “The teachers should make it their express purpose,
in their lectures when occasion is offered and outside
of them, too, to inspire the students to the love and
service of God our Lord, and to a love of the virtues
by which they please Him.” Translations in George E.
Ganss, S.J., Saint Ignatius’ Idea of a Jesuit Univer-
sity
(Milwaukee, Wis.: Marquette University Press, 1954),
pp. 321, 330. This aim, stated in the first of the Rules
of the Provincial, appears in the first of the Rules of
the Rector: “The rector’s first concern should be the
spiritual development of the young men committed to his
care”; in the first of the Rules of the Prefect of Stu-
dies: “so that those who attend our schools will, to
the greater glory of God, make the greatest possible
progress in development of character, literary skills,
and learning”; in the first of the Common Rules of Pro-
fessors of the Higher Faculties: “It will be the set
purpose of the teacher . . . to inspire his students to


113


114


the love and service of God and to the practice of the
virtues which He expects of them”; and in the first of
the Rules of the Prefect of Lower Studies: “that our
students may advance in uprightness of life as well as
in the liberal arts.” Such a religious purpose did
not, however, prevent or distract the Jesuits from pur-
suing the immediate objective of leading their students
to excellence in learning: praestans rerum scientia.
They knew that in order to formthe Christian they must
first form the man, that is, develop all the powers and
potentialities of the individual. This involves, if it
is to be successful, not only the training of the mind,
but the shaping of the student’s spirit, the cultivation
of his religious sense and his sense of values. There-
fore, the Jesuit teacher, besides possessing even the best
possible teaching aims, must help in creating in the
school a Christian atmosphere (with the active influence
of the Sôdality: see Note 30), in providing guidance and
counseling to his pupils, and most of all by giving an
example of apostolic dedication.

3. St. Ignatius, founder of the Society of Jesus,
saw a close link between the formative value of the hu-
manities and the arts of communication. In a letter to
the famous Jesuit theologian, James Laynez, dated May 21,
1547, Juan de Polanco wrote in the name of Ignatius that
“many learned men, because they lack this formation, keep
their knowledge to themselves. They miss the chief end
which they should have attained with their knowledge, that
of being useful to their neighbor. Others, no doubt, com-
municate their knowledge, but not with the same authority
and profit which would result if they possessed the fac-
ulty of making themselves understood, and could thus make
their ideas as clear and intelligible to their audience as
they are clear and intelligible in their own minds.”
Monumenta Ignatiana: S. Ignatii de Loyola Epistolae et
Instructiones, Ser. I (Madrid, 1903), I, p. 522.

4. Canonical Books are the books of the Old and
New Testament accepted by the Catholic Church as genuine
and inspired. They were fixed and listed by the Council
of Trent in 1546. Cf. H. Denzinger and A. Schönmetzer,
S.J., Enchiridion Symbolorum (Barcelona: Herder, 32nd ed.,
1962), nn. 1502, 1503, p. 365.

5. For this special instruction, entitled “Instruc-
tion for Those Engaged in the Two-Year Review of Theology,”
see above, pp. 97-99.


115


6. A Scholasticate is a seminary for Jesuit stu-
dents who are pursuing studies in philosophy and theolo-
gy. Scholastics are Jesuit students who, after completing
the novitiate, are pursuing higher studies prior to or-
dination and final vows.

7. A professed house was intended primarily as
the living quarters of the professed members of the Order.
It was not to have either property or regular income.

8. “Extern students” was a term used to distin-
guish lay students from Jesuit or other ecclesiastical
students. It included both day students and boarders.

9. The 1599 edition of the Ratio was reprinted at
Mainz in 1600, at Naples and Tournon in 1603, and at Rome
in 1606 and 1616. In the Roman reprint of 1616, Rule 19,
nn. 1-14 of the Provincial, regarding theology and philo-
sophy, was somewhat revised, according to Decree 33 of the
Seventh General Congregation of the Order, 1615-1616. Cf.
Institutum Sotietatis Jesu (Florence, 1893), II, 328-329.
We have followed the revised version of Rule 19 in the
translation. In all other respects the 1616 reprint was
identical with that of 1599.

10. The 49th rule of the Provincial leaves it to
his discretion to decide what studies the Jesuit students,
in view of their age and talent, are to pursue, and to
remove from those studies anyone who proves unequal to
them. The 56th rule recommends that he assign to the
study of moral theology those who, because of age or other
reasons, are unable to progress in higher studies, and
that he see to it that others also apply themselves to
the study of moral theology, so that the Society may have
a sufficient number of qualified confessors. Cf. Insti-
tutum Societatis Jesu (Florence, 1893), III, 78-79.

11. Teaching, namely, the grammar classes or the Humanities.

12. Profession is the grade in the Order to which
those priests are admitted who take the three solemn vows
of poverty, chastity, and obedience, plus a fourth vow of
special obedience to the Pope.

13. This 29th decree of the Sixth General Congre-
gation (Decree 15 in Institutum Societatis Jesu, II, 294)


116


states that those who possess exceptional talent in the
classical languages and have taught them with outstand-
ing success for a number of years, may be promoted by
the general either to the profession of the four solemn
vows or of three solemn vows. The same exception is to
be made for those who have labored fruitfully in the In-
dian missions and have mastered the Indian languages.

14. Part V, ch. 2, n. 2 B of the Constitutions
says that generally speaking admission to the profession
of four vows should be based on completion of four years
of theological studies, followed by the final examination
described in Rule 19, n. 10 of the Provincial. There may
be occasion, however, to make an exQeption in the case of
those who, before entering the Society, have had adequate
training in canon law or who possess other notable gifts
which might compensate for lack of training in theology.
Judgment is to be left to the general. Institutum Soci-
etatis Jesu, II, p. 88.

15. Chapter 12, n. 3 C of the Fourth Part of the
Constitutions
reads: “To teach how to read and write
would also be a work of charity if the Society had enough
members to be able to attend to everything. But because
of the lack of members, these elementary branches are not
ordinarily taught.” Trans. from Ganss, op. cit., p. 322.
In the early Jesuit schools the rule was not easy to
put into effect. The townspeople and some of the princi-
pal benefactors made vigorous appeals to start or contin-
ue the elementary studies. Ignatius, however, insisted
on the observance of the rule, and gradually the classes
were eliminated. It should be emphasized that the Jesuits
did not disparage elementary schooling, as is sometimes
inferred. Ignatius gave the precise explanation: the
Society did not have sufficient manpower to take up every
worthy cause. It was already committed to large-scale
missionary activity (a primary ministry) both at home
and in pagan lands, and between 1548 and the middle of
1556 it had undertaken an extensive educational aposto-
late by establishing thirty-three secondary schools in
Sicily, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Austria, France, and
Germany. Cf. Allan P. Farrell, S.J., The Jesuit Code of
Liberal Education (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1938), pp. 431-435,
for a complete list of these schools.

16. When the first Jesuit schools were established
in the middle of the sixteenth century, the Doctrinale
of Alexander de Vila Dei, the favorite Latin grammar of


117


the Middle Ages, had gradually been replaced by the
Commentarii Grammatici of Jan van Pauteren, commonly
known as Despauterius (1460-1520). It was introduced
into practically all the Jesuit schools. It was not
long, however, before such strong criticism of Despau-
terius was voiced that several Jesuits undertook to pro-
vide a grammar more suitable to their schools. The
first was that of Father Hannibal Coudret while he was
teaching at Messina. It was used widely and several
times reprinted, but was never officially adopted by
the Society. Father André des Freux (Frusius), at the
request of Ignatius, published a grammar in 1556, but
it did not meet with approval. Neither did the grammar
of James Laynez, written in Latin prose instead of in
the usual metrical form. Finally, in 1572, the grammar
of the Portuguese Jesuit, Emmanuel Alvarez, appeared in
Lisbon. Its title was De Institutione Graxnmatica Libri
Tres. Of the three divisions of the grammar, the first
dealt with etymology, the second with syntax, and the
third with prosody. Innumerable copies were quickly
printed in the various countries where the Jesuits had
schools. Nevertheless, even this grammar was severely
criticized as being too long and containing too many
scholia or appendices. The upshot was that a revision
of Alvarez, by Father Horace Torsellini, was published
in Rome in 1584. It contained so many changes in struc-
ture, rules of syntax, and annotations that it bore only
superficial resemblance to Alvarez. So the Ratio of 1599
gave the schools the choice of using the original Alvarez
or the Roman substitute. On the battle of the grammars,
see Farrell, op. cit., pp. 441-454.

17. An important part of the training of young
Jesuits has always been a period of several years spent
in the teaching of boys in Jesuit secondary schools.
This period normally follows the completion of their
philosophical studies. Though it serves as a temporary
break in the intensive study of the humanities and philo-
sophy, its chief value lies in the formation of character
and growth in intellectual and religious maturity. In
the United States this experience originally embraced a
five-year period. In the early 1920’s the duration was
reduced to three years. Exceptions to the rule of re-
quiring teaching experience are noted in this Rule 26 and
in the two following rules. Thus the normal progression
in Jesuit training is two years of novitiate, two years
of humanistic studies (somewhat modified today), three
(now two) years of philosophical studies, three years of


118

teaching experience, three years in the study of the-
ology, ordination to the priesthood, a fourth year of
theology, and a third year of probation, called “ter-
tianship.”

18. The third year of probation, or “tertianship,”
is the final year in the Jesuit’s formation and has for
its aim the renewal and deepening of the religious spirit.

19. For the ninth rule of the rector, see above.
p. 16.

20. Lay brothers, or temporal coadjutors, take
vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, but are not
ordained to the priesthood. Apart from the priesthood,
they enjoy the same vocation as all other members of
the Society of Jesus. They perform a wide variety of
functions, as buyers, supervisors of workmen, account-
ants, master carpenters, technical experts, mechanics,
teachers, according to their talent and training.

21. On the “expurgation” from classical authors
of what might poison an immature boy’s soul while per-
fecting his Latinity, the Jesuits followed the advice
of St. Ignatius, expressed in a letter of June, 1549:
“A boy’s first impressions which are often strongest
and remain for long years have a definite influence
for good or ill in after life. Hence, the books put
into his hands must be such as exert a good influence,
or at least they must not be such as would surely expose
him to moral corruption.” Monumenta Ignatiana, Ser. I,
II, p. 445. In accord with this advice, Ignatius com-
missioned Father Andre des Freux to prepare expurgated
editions of Horace, Martial, and Terence. In reply, des
Freux said that he found no difficulty in preparing edi-
tions of Horace and Martial, but that Terence was tax-
ing his ingenuity because the poison was often in the
very structure and argument of his works. Father des
Freux did prepare an expurgated edition of Martial,
edited after his death (1558) by Father Edmond Auger.
It went into eighteen editions. There is no record that
he published an expurgated Horace. Ignatius banned the
works of Terence from Jesuit classrooms in 1553. More
than a century later Father Joseph de Jouvancy published
expurgated editions not only of Horace, Persius, and
Juvenal, but also of Terence. Cf. Carl Sornmervogel, S.J.,
Bibliotheque de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris: Picard,
1890-1900), III, Col. 1047 for des Freux; IV, Cols. 833-


119

834 for de Jouvancy. Renaissance educators like Vegio,
Aeneas Sylvius, and Vives were equally emphatic on the
need for expurgating many of the Latin classics. The
recent comment of Father John W. Donohue, S.J., is
relevant: “For although those teachers (the early. Jes-
uits] were less enthusiastic about wide and relatively
unrestricted reading than we are, they had perhaps a
greater respect for the power of books. Since they be-
lieved that great books could shape intelligence and
hence influence character by reason of the interplay
between mind and heart, they also believed that an evil
book can corrupt. And unless one assumes that reading
and study can make a difference, There is little point
in educating.” Jesuit Education. An Essay on the Founda-
tions of its Idea (Fordham University Press, 1963), pp.
172-173.

22. The limitations of this rule should be noted.
It does not sanction free adaptation. Ignatius and his
successors insisted on preserving certain essential aims
and principles which places, times, and persons should
not be allowed to change. Even the 1832 revision of the
Ratio “was approached with the greatest reverence for a
system which was drawn up by men of the highest compe-
tence, after lengthy consultations, and approved by nearly
two centuries of successful operation.” Ratio Studiorum,
1832, prefatory letter by the General of the Society of
Jesus, Father John Roothaan. Cf. G. M. Pachtler, S.J.,
Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticae Societatis
Jesu per Germaniam olim vigentes, collectae, concinnatae,
dilucidatae (Berlin: A. Hofmann, l887-94, II, p. 229.
Adaptations raise these stubbornly recurring questions:
Adaptations to achieve what purpose? Is the purpose a
Jesuit one? If so, are the means appropriate and ade-
quate? Adaptations certainly have taken place in the
past and will continue to take place as need dictates.
The revised Ratio of 1832 is an instance. That revision
preserved the distinctive and timeless Ignatian aims,
but it did not sufficiently adapt the changeable to the
new educational demands. Father Roothaan stated in his
preface that after some years of trial a more permanent
modern Ratio would be undertaken. It was never accom-
plished. A very recent adaptation was begun in the
Thirty-first General Congregation, S.J., convened after
Vatican II, which spent more than five months (1965-66)
examining in the light of the Constitutions every phase
of Jesuit life and discussing and evaluating each of the
varied Jesuit activities: education (secondary and uni-


120


ersity), scholarship and research, the missions, the
social apostolate in today’s dimensions, the relations
between Jesuits and the laity, the Spiritual Exercises,
the mass media, modern atheism and unbelief. The ne-
cessary adaptations are to be determined in the spirit
of the Constitutions and with Ignatian wisdom.

23. The Jesuits have always given prominence to
disputations, debates, discussion and, in secondary
schools, to a variety of class and interclass contests.
In the Constitutions, Part IV, ch. 6, n. 11, Ignatius
states the purpose of these instruments: “that the in-
tellectual powers may be more fully exercised.” In n.
12 of the same chapter he emphasized that there should
be fixed times to discuss and debate the subject matter
of the humanities. This exercise of intellectual powers
is the motive underlying the several rules in the 1599
Ratio concerning disputations, contests and debates; for
instance, Rule 12 of the Common Rules of Professors of
the Higher Faculties and Rule 34 of the Common Rules for
the Teachers of the Lower Classes. Besides, in the ini-
tial edition of the Ratio (1586) a lengthy chapter was
devoted to disputations in theology, philosophy, the hu-
manities, and even grammatical studies. To quote from
the statement on philosophy and theology: One masters
philosophy and theology, “not so much by listening to
lectures as by engaging in disputation; for disputation
provides a real test of how much a student understands
of what he wrote in his notebook and how much profit he
gained from private reflection. What seemed crystal
clear in the seclusion of one’s room will often be found
worthless in the give and take of disputation. Yet,
when one is hard pressed by an opponent, he is forced
to call upon all the strength and vigor of his mental
powers. As a consequence, he will think of arguments
in rebuttal that would never have come to mind in the
quiet and ease of his study.” Pachtler, op. cit., II,
103.

24. Rules 5 and 6 refer to the “Instruction,” pp.
97-99.


25. The practice of speaking and writing Latin
by young Jesuits was stressed principally for four rea-
sons: (1) In the Ratio Latin was the dominant subject
in the curriculum; (2) the practice of speaking Latin in
the classroom was to be strictly observed except in the
lower classes in which the pupils were still learning


121

the fundamentals of Latin. Cf. Rule 18 of the Common
Rules for the Teachers of the Lower Classes; (3) Latin
sermons, orations and addresses occupied a prominent
place in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; (4)
Latin was still the language of scholarship, as witness,
for example, the nine large volumes of Sommervogel’s
Bibliotheque (op. cit.) of Jesuit publications in philo-
sophy, theology, literature, history, mathematics, and
astronomy.

26. See also Rule 30 of the Rules of the Provin-
cial. This regulation is probably the earliest public
recognition in educational history that special prepara-
tion is necessary for effective teaching. The prelim-
inary Ratio of 1586 made the point that if prospective
teachers have not learned the techniques of good teach-
ing beforehand, they will be forced to learn them after-
wards at the expense of their students and of their own
reputation. Besides, teachers often take it amiss if
they are corrected after they have adopted a fixed method
of teaching and may thus persist in their mistaken ways.
Pachtler, op. cit., II, p. 154. But the origin of this
regulation goes back to the founder of the Jesuits, Ig-
natius of Loyola. When the Roman College (now the Gre-
gorian University) was opened in 1551, Ignatius decided
that it should become the center for training future
Jesuit teachers for the schools which were being estab-
lished in many European countries. So he brought to
the Roman College the more promising among the young Jes-
uit students. Eleven came from Messina, others from
Spain, Portugal, Louvain, Germany, and Italy. At the
same time he staffed the college with the most gifted
professors of the Order. The purpose he had in mind was
to form the younger students in sound pedagogical prin-
ciples by observing the teaching methods of their profes-
sors and by having the methods explained to them. Thus
what they had learned at the Roman College would through
them become operative in other Jesuit schools. Ignatius’
letter on his project for the Roman College is in Monumenta
Ignatiana, Ser. I, IV, pp. 684-690.

27. They would thus be considered merely “auditors.”

28. The theatre played and still plays a conspicu-
ous role in the history of Jesuit education. The limita-
tions set by Rule 13 of the Rector are sufficiently strin-
gent to obviate abuses. In the early Jesuit centuries,


122


“only rarely” was interpreted to mean three or four
times a year. The themes were taken from sacred his-
tory, the Latin and Greek classics, the foreign missions,
lives of the saints, and local traditions. A dictinc-
tive feature of these comedies and tragedies was that
the majority were written by the Jesuit professors them-
selves. Many were published (cf. Sommervogel, op. cit.,
passim
) and were thus reproduced in many of the schools.
In our century and in the United States usually one
three-act play is produced each year; sometimes three
one-act plays. Secular themes predominate, though re-
ligious or ethical plays are occasionally staged, such
as The Trial of Edmund Campion, Barabbas, Twelve Angry
Men. The educative purpose of these dramatic perform-
ances in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries were
stated by Jacobus Pontanus (Spanmüller), S.J.: (1) The
clever acting of poor students on the stage often moves
the wealthy to help them; (2) the plays bring renown to
the teachers and to the school; (3) they can be excel-
lent means for exercising the memory; (4) they are a
great help to students in mastering Latin; (5) they in-
culcate lessons of virtue. Cf. Progymnasinatum latinita-
tis sive dialogorum Libri VI, Liber I, Progymnasma
centesimum: “Actio Scenica.” (Padova, 1641), p. 441.

29. The 25th Rule of the rector prescribes that
he should frequently and in a friendly manner confer
with his teachers and generously provide for their
needs whether of body or of mind. If he finds that
anyone is troubled by temptation, especially if it is
of serious consequence, he should either himself or if
necessary through others, offer every possible help, so
that a suitable remedy may be applied without delay.
Institutum Societatis Jesu, III, p. 110.

30. First in rank among extracurricular activities
in Jesuit schools was the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin
Mary. Its purpose was to foster filial devotion to the
Blessed Mother of God. As early as 1557 there were pious
congregations of students at Genoa and at Perugia, but
the sodality founded at the Roman College in 1563 by
the Belgian Jan Leunis, then a teacher in a class of
grammar, was to be named in 1584 as the head and mother
of all present and future sodalities in Jesuit schools
throughout the world. It was dedicated to the Annunci-
ation of Our Lady. It is probable that the sodality had
a relationship to the academies, because the academies
were extracurricular activities limited to the leaders


123


in both academic and spiritual enterprises (cf. Rules
of the Academy, pp. 103-112. The greatness of the
sodality and the key to its spread was its dedication
to an ever deeper interior life, to prayer and self-
mastery, and to an active social apostolate. After
Vatican II the sodality was given a new name: Chris-
tian Life Communities. These Communities are still, as
was the original sodality, under the patronage of the
Blessed Virgin Mary, and they are worldwide just as the
Jesuit schools and universities are worldwide.

31. The rules presented here are those of the
prefect of higher studies in a college or university,
whereas the Rules of the Prefect of Lower Studies cor-
respond to those of the principal of a modern high
school or secondary school. The prefect of higher stud-
ies had general supervision of both the higher and the
lower studies.

32. The office of Chancellor dates from medieval
times. Normally the Chancellor had the authority, under
pope or king to grant degrees. He was below the Rector
Magnificus and above the dean.

33. These comprehensive disputations or “acts,”
covering the whole range of theological subject matter,
were reserved for special occasions and were held in
public, usually before a distinguished audience. They
were quite different from the disputations held weekly
or monthly in private.

34. The four divisions of theology were based on
the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, which had
three parts, the second of which is subdivided into two,
so that in sum there are four divisions.

35. Rules 19 and 20 deal with philosophical dis-
putations embracing the entire subject matter of philoso-
phy. From these disputations a few of the abler stu-
dents would be chosen to present an “act” in philosophy.
These disputations are separate from the final examina-
tions prescribed under Rule 19, n. 1 of the Provincial.

36. Rules pertaining to the class beadle will be
found on pp. 99-100.

37. For a brief description of the scholastic meth-
od, see Rule 20 of the professor of philosophy.


124


38. St. Thomas held that the Blessed Virgin in
the first instant of her conception was not exempt from
original sin. According to him, she was not endowed
with sanctifying grace because, like all men, she was
redeemed by Christ (Summa Theologica, III, q. 27, a. 2).
The more common teaching was that the Blessed Virgin
was endowed with sanctifying grace in the first instant
of her existence in virtue of the anticipated merits of
Christ. It was this teaching that was defined as a dogma
of the Church by Pius IX on December 8, 1854.

39. For St. Thomas the solemnity of a vow con-
sists in a kind of consecration or blessing of the per-
son who takes the vow. The more common opinion is that
a vow is solemn if it is accepted as such by the Church.
In other words, the term “solemn” is a technical and not
a substantive expression.

40. The catalogue of questions here referred to
is a selection of topics from St. Thomas’ Summa Theo-
logica. Some are to be treated in class, others are to
be omitted or treated elsewhere or left to be taken up
by other teachers of philosophy or theology. The cata-
logue is in Pachtler, op. cit., II, pp. 310-319. It
would serve no useful purpose to include it in this
translation.

41. A preferable title would be “Rules of the
Professor of Moral Theology,” since principles as well
as cases are studied. Such is the title in the 1832 re-
vision of the Ratio.

42. The humanities and the natural sciences are
the principal subject matter of the first two years of
the American College of Arts and Sciences.

43. Averroes was a Spanish-Arabian philosopher,
1126-1198. The Alexandrists were philosophers of the
Renaissance, who adopted the explanation of Aristotle’s
De Anima of Alexander of Aphrodisias. Both the Averro-
ists and Alexandrists were condemned by the fifth Lateran
Council, under Leo X, for their false doctrines, espe-
cially regarding the immortality of the soul.

44. Both Francesco Toledo (1532-1596) and Pietro
da Fonseca (1528-1599) were professors in the Roman
College.


125


45. These emblematic compositions, and similar
devices, such as hieroglyphics, enigmas and epigrams,
were widely cultivated in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries and are mentioned frequently in the Ratio.
Pontanus describes the emblem thus: “Pictura quidem,
tamquam corpus, poesis tamquam animus est: fitque ut
emblema non possit non esse gratum, in quo et aures
dulci carminum numero delectantur, animi pascuntur,
et oculi pictura recreantur.” Jacobus Pontanus, S.J.,
Institutio Poetica (Ingolstadt, 1658), Ch. LII. See
also J. B. Herman, S.J., La Pedagogie Des Jesuites Au
XVIe Siecle (Louvain, 1914), pp. 289-291. In the Ratio,
Rule 12 oUthe Rules of the Teacher of Rhetoric lists
emblematic compositions as subject matter for class
contests, and Rule 15 includes them among the more
recondite exercises to be substituted on the weekly
holidays for the usual reading of an historical author.

46. The method “other than the Roman” was that
of the original grammar of Emmanuel Alvarez. Cf. above,
note 16.

47. This Rule 8, #6 through #10, establishes
norms for the smaller schools which, in the beginning,
might have few teachers and grades. Either the school
would eventually develop into the five grades, lowest
grammar through rhetoric, or would be abandoned.

48. This system of promotions made it possible
for a bright and industrious youngster to spend no more
than half a year or a semester in the lowest and middle
grammar grades, thus completing two years in one. Such
promotions were facilitated by the fact that the sub-
ject matter of each grade was to be completed in the
first semester and repeated by way of review in the
second semester (cf. above Rule 8, #3 and #4). It
should be noted, too, that since according to the 37th
rule of the Provincial (q.v.) the annual vacations in
the grammar classes were limited to one or two weeks,
the first semester was in reality longer in time than
the second semester. At the end of Rule 13 reasons are
given for limiting “promotion during the year” to the
lowest and middle grammar classes.

49. On the compendium of Cyprian Soarez, see
above, Rule 29 of the Common Rules for the Teachers of
the Lower Classes, and Rule 1 of the Rules for the


126


Teacher of Humanities. Also see Note 65 below.

50. Rules 14 to 18 describe the written examina-
tion, while Rules 19 to 22 describe the oral examination
which followed upon evaluation of the papers submitted
in the written examination. See also Rules for Written
Examinations, pp. 57-59.

51. The disputations referred to in this rule
were to be held in the grammar classes and in the classes
of humanities and rhetoric. On the question of disputa-
tions, see note 23 above.

52. There are special rules for these academies
at the very end of the Ratio, pp. 105-112. It should be
noted that the accomplishment of some or all of the
purposes of the various academies could not but pro-
foundly influence the standard of work done in the
classroom itself, as almost anyone can testify who has
presided over the modern counterparts of the old academ-
ies, often split up now into classical, literary, de-
bating, dramatic, and scientific clubs.

53. The censor (sometimes called monitor) was
to a certain extent the custodian of external disci-
pline. As the rule specifies, the office was public,
so that as Father Aquaviva, the Jesuit General, wrote,
“A proper understanding of the rule will show that as
the censorship is a public office, no odium or dissen-
sion should arise from it.” Pachtler, op. cit., II, p.
493. The office of censor was established by statute
at the University of Paris and was in effect in Sturm’s
Strasburg Gymnasium, in Cordier’s College de Guyenne,
at Winchester, at St. Paul’s in London, in the systems
outlined by Brinsley, Hoole, and other English school-
masters, and as late as the nineteenth century in the
public schools at Shrewsbury and Rugby. Cf. Farrell,
op. cit., pp. 59-61. In the Jesuit schools it was in
effect as late as the eighteenth century and then dis-
appeared.

54. The Jesuits preferred to follow the princi-
ple that observance of rules “will be better secured by
the hope of honor and reward and the fear of disgrace
than by corporal punishment” (Rule 39 of the Common
Rules for Teachers of the Lower Classes). Yet as St.
Ignatius remarked, discipline must be maintained. He


127

told parents in Italy that for this one of three thinqs
was to be done: the boys were either to be admonished
verbally, or punished (though never whipped), or sent
away from the school. Since he forbade the Jesuit teach-
ers to punish their pupils, he recommended in his Con-
stitutions (Part IV, ch. 16, n. 5) that a corrector be
employed. The corrector was generally taken for granted
in the sixteenth century and attention was directed to
the qualities he should possess to fulfill his office
satisfactorily. For instance, the French Jesuits enumer-
ated these qualities: “He must be of mature age, pious,
dignified, advanced in studies, carefully obedient to
the college authorities, and content ordinarily to re-
main in the school and to keep aloof from the students.”
MS Judicium P. Joannis Bleusii, folio 373, quoted in
Farrell, op. cit., pp. 245-246.

55. A reference to fiery tempers and student cus-
toms in the sixteenth century.

56. Christian doctrine was studied mainly from
the catechism of St. Peter Canisius in Germany or that
of St. Robert Bellarmine, both of which had been trans-
lated into many languages.

57. It should be explained that in correcting
themes while the students were doing other tasks the
teacher was not pilfering time from a class period to
do his paper work. He was really alternating class with
“study hail.” He was probably with the students all day
long. This rule is repeated in Rule 5 of the teacher of
Rhetoric and in Rule 4 of the teacher of Humanities and of
the three grammar classes.

58. The Jesuits have always exalted the role of
the teacher. Yet they were well aware of the difficulty
of the teaching art and of the fact that not many have
the essential endowment of the great teacher, the gift
of inspiration. Hence they laid down a teaching tech-
nique which they believed would lead the teacher by
successive steps to “create the mental situation and
stimulate the imminent activity of the student.” The
technique was called the prelection. Its aim was to
help the teacher to prepare his students for successful
out-of-class study. He would explain to them the Latin
or Greek assignment, first reading it aloud, slowly and
distinctly, then linking its content with that of the


128


previous lesson, and commenting, to the extent he
thought necessary, on vocabulary, structure, syntax,
figures of speech, and any special points of inter-
est or difficulty. In the initial stage of reading
Latin or Greek the prelection would be more detailed,
cover only a few lines, and include exactitude in ren-
dering the passage into the vernacular. As students
passed to the next years, there would be question and
answer dialogue about uncommon words and phrases, diffi-
cult sentence structure, and more delicate shades of
meaning. Gradually, especially in the classes of Hu-
manities and Rhetoric, the prelection dealt less with
vocabulary and syntax and more with ideas and expres-
sion. There would be pertinent discussion of classical
allusions, of history, manners and morals (cf. Note 63),
of the developing theme of a speech, poem or historical
work, of the force and fitness of the author’s style,
and of artistic reproduction. All the time the teacher
would demand more of the students and give less of his
own help and direction. His principal aim was to pre-
pare his students how to grapple with an assignment or
problem, to understand clearly what the author was say-
ing and how he was saying it; in a word how to study
effectively so as to arrive step by step at mastery of
successively more advanced subject matter. It should
be noted that during the prelection the students were
not to take notes but were to follow the teacher’s ex-
position closely. At the close of the prelection, or
sometimes during it, the teacher might dictate the few
points he felt were needed for prompting the memory in
out-of-class study. The teacher, as the 1591 Ratio
warned, was not to belabor the obvious, omitting de-
tails that were no longer required, and accommodating
the explanation to the grade and proficiency of the
class. Generally, the prelection was to occupy no
more than ten or fifteen minutes. The prelection, as
described here, deals with the classical studies in
the granunar classes and the classes of Humanities and
Rhetoric. But, as the 1586 Ratio made clear, it was
to be applied and adapted to the teaching of philosophy
and theology and, by implication, to any subject.
Pachtler, op. cit., II, pp. 81-85, 133-134. See also
John W. Donohue, S.J., op. cit., p. 151.

59. Intimately connected with the prelection were
both repetition and written exercises. I. Repetition.
It was fourfold: (1) immediately following the prelec-
tion, (2) on the day following the prelection, usually


129


recited to the decurions in the presence of the teacher,
who might intervene to question some of the students,
(3) a review of the week’s prelections, often in the
form of a concertatio (contest), (4) a month’s review
prior to the year-end promotion. The aims of the repe-
titions were (1) drill in vocabulary and syntax in the
lower grammar classes, (2) accuracy in stating and exem-
plifying rules, (3) detection of student weaknesses,
(4) organization of material already studied, (5) sug-
gestion of questions or topics for further study. On
repetition in the 1599 Ratio, see Rules 19, 25, 26, 31,
34, 37 of the Common Rules for the Teachers of the Lower
Classes, and the second rule of each of the teachers of
the lower classes. II. Written Exercises. Rule 20 of
the Common Rules for the Teachers of the Lower Classes
directs that prose composition be handed in daily, ex-
cept on Saturday, by pupils in the three grammar classes,
and daily, except on the weekly holiday and on Saturday,
by pupils in Humanities and Rhetoric. Poetry was to be
written twice a week and a Greek prose composition once
a week. This written work was done partly during school
hours and partly at home. Rule 30 gives directions for
assigning the written work and Rules 21 to 24 deal with
the method of correcting it. The purpose of the fre-
quent exercises in composition was to help the students
attain a real command of the Latin language; an ability,
namely, not only to read but to write and speak (Rule
18) Latin correctly, fluently, and even elegantly.
Cicero was the chief and, in the beginning, the only
model to be imitated--in his letters, essays, and ora-
tions. This imitation of Cicero, however, was not to
be servile, since it aimed ultimately at self-expression.
For instance, Rule 6 of the Rules of the Teacher of the
Highest Grammar Class states that after the pupils have
made some progress in composition, they should, once a,
month, write a completely original essay, And Rule 6
of the Rules of the Teacher of Humanities specifies that
“usually once a week . . . the pupils should write from
their own resources.” A good many years before even
the experimental Ratio of 1568 was written, James Ledesma,
in his “De Ratione et Ordine Studiorum Collegii Romani,”
wrote that by the time students reached the class of Hu-
manities they would have had practice in composing proprio
marte. He then outlined ten types of exercises to be
written as original essays. Monumenta Paedagogica, pp.
338-453. These various types are repeated almost ver-
batim in Rule 5 of the Rules of the Teacher of Rhetoric
in the 1599 Ratio.


130


60. When in 1548 the Jesuits went to Messina, in
Sicily, to open their first school, they knew of course
from experience that the instinct to excel, to outdis-
tance, is universal in human nature. They soon found
that it is manifested most spontaneously in games and
in play. Well and good. But they wondered whether
this common instinct could not be used constructively
in the classroom. Their experiment with it at Messina
was so successful that one after another of the thirty-
five Jesuit secondary schools founded between 1548 and
1556 adopted emulation as an essential element in their
teaching technique. And so eventually the 1599 Ratio
emphasized honorable rivalry, honesta aemulatio, as “a
powerful incentive to studies.” Gilbert Highet aptly i
nterprets this use of rivalry when he says that the
Jesuits “treated it not as a method of making the boys
learn, but as a way of helping them to learn by bring-
ing out their own hidden energies.” [The Art of Teaching
(New York: Vintage Books, 1955), p. 13l.] This rivalry
was individual, group and interciass. It entered into
the class recitation, conducting repetitions, and the
public correction of written work. It included disputa-
tions and debates (cf. Note 23), contests within a class
and between classes nearest to each other in grade, com-
petition within a class for leadership, awarding of prizes
for best results in Latin and Greek composition, both
prose and poetry, and awards for general excellence in
studies. The values of emulation in education have, of
course, been challenged and denied. The Little Schools
of Port-Royal (1646-1660) and the Jansenists, who viewed
human nature as essentially corrupt, banned every form
of competition in the classroom as well as on the play-
ing field. A century later, Rousseau in his Emile, said:
“It is very strange that ever since people began to think
about education they should have hit upon no other way
of guiding children than emulation, jealousy, envy, van-
ity, greediness, base cowardice, all the most dangerous
passions . . . .“ (Everyman’s ed., pp. 55-56). In the
United States, between 1930 and 1955, the Progressive
Education Movement condemned rivalry in favor of cooper-
a
tion. In many schools, dominated by the Progressive
ideology, rivalry was forbidden. The fact is, as as
widely recognized today, that both rivalry and coopera-
tion are valuable and compatible. It is the teacher’s
duty to be on his guard lest this honorable rivalry de-
generate into ill will, jealousy or greed. In Jesuit
schools today, though emulation is not as intensive as
it was in the schools of the sixteenth century, it is


131


still an important factor, in and out of class, “as a
powerful incentive to studies.”

61. Decurions were merely mentioned above in Rule
19. Their duties are enumerated in this Rule 36. In the
sixteenth century the classes in Jesuit grammar schools
were often very large, numbering above 100. The reason
for this situation was that the almost immediate public
esteem won by the schools brought a flood of insistent
demands from parents to admit their sons to these schools.
The Jesuits could not or did not sufficiently resist these
demands and soon found their manpower spread too thin.
The solution hit upon was to divide the large classes in-
to groups of ten with a captain, chosen from among the
better students, as leader of each group. The captains
assisted the teacher by hearing the memory lessons with-
in their group (reciting their own lesson to the teacher),
collecting the written exercises, and performing other as-
signed duties. The captains were changed every two weeks
or every month. Evidently this device worked well; for
it was continued for many years and was incorporated into
the successive editions of the Ratio.

62. It will be observed that the first rule for
every teacher, from Rhetoric to the lowest grammar class,
defines the scope or objective of the class. This pro-
vided a clear organization of successive objectives to
be attained by the student. It also provided a norm for
the early promotion of better students within the year.
See on this Note 48.

63. The introduction of erudition into the Ratio
first occurs in Rule 5 of the Rules of the Teacher of
the Highest Grammar Class, which directs that in the pre-
lection the teacher should “briefly comment on the myth-
ology, history and general erudition that may be sug-
gested by the passage.” The class of Humanities includes
erudition among the objectives to be achieved. The pur-
pose of erudition is here stated to be “a means of stimu-
lating interest and relaxing the mind.” In Rule 5 erudi-
tion is called for “to the extent that the passage [cov-
ered in the prelection] requires it.” The class of Rhe-
toric makes much more extensive use of erudition. This
class, says the first rule, is concerned mainly with the art
of Rhetoric, the refinement of style, and erudition. Eru-
dition is described as comprising “the study of histor-
ical events, ethnology, the
authoritative views of scholars
and wide sources of knowledge.” But it is to be employed


132


“rather sparingly according to the capacity of the stu-
dents." Rule 6 states that “toward the end of the year
local custom may favor the substitution of some new au-
thor whose richness of erudition and variety in subject
matter attracts interest.” The use of erudition is like-
wise recommended in Rules 7, 8, 12 and 15. However, the
Ratio of 1591 warns the teacher that though he should
bring in appropriate allusions to history and fable, to
Roman antiquity, to men and morals, he was to do this
briefly, with the view to clarifying the matter at hand.
He should in general indicate the sources to which the
students may go for a fuller investigation and deeper
knowledge of these matters, if they wish. Thus it will
be evident that the teacher passes over certain matters
of erudition, not because he is uninformed about them,
but because at the moment they are foreign to his pur-
pose. Cf. T. Corcoran, S.J., Renatae Litterae Saeculo
A. Chr. XVI in Scholis Societatis lesu Stabilitae (Dublin:
The National University, 1927), pp. 260-261. See also
Herman, op. cit., p. 272, and Farrell, op. cit., pp. 300
-301. This warning was not meant to disparage the use of
erudition, but rather to place formation and information
in their proper perspective in the Jesuit system. The
values of erudition are that it broadens and enriches
the students’ knowledge of ancient civilization and of
the great Greek and Roman writers, relaxes the mind and
relieves the tedium of constant contact with the classi-
cal text itself, and in this way helps sustain interest
in achieving the primary aim of the teaching. This aim
was that by an intensive study of the classical author
the students would come to understand exactly what he
was saying and how he was saying it. This would normally
lead to appreciation and imitation.

64. Rule 2 in each of the sets of rules for the
teachers of the several classes divides the school day
into successive periods and exercises. This results in
a good deal of repetition which may seem uncalled for.
It may be said in justification that the Ratio was in
good part a handbook for teachers, who were expected
to follow carefully the rules of their respective classes.
The format of Rule 2 is noticeably similar in all the
classes. There are minor differences in prescribed ex-
ercises in each of the grammar classes and some major
differences in the classes of Humanities and Rhetoric.

65. The full title of the Rhetoric was De Arte
Rhetorica libri tres ex Aristotele, Cicerone et Quinctili-
ano Deprompti. The author, Father Cyprian Soarez (1524-


133


1593) was a Portuguese Jesuit. The first edition was
published at Coirnbra, Portugal, in 1560. Thereafter in-
numerable editions were printed until the middle of the
eighteenth century. Cf. Sommervogel, op. cit., Vol. VII,
coll. 1331 ff. It was a well-arranged compendium of the
oratorical precepts of Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian.
The edition of 1568 was translated into English by Lawrence
J. Flynn, S.J., under the title of The De Arte Rhetorica
(1568) of Cyprian Soarez, S.J.: A Translation wfth Intro-
duction and Notes. The University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida, accepted it as a doctoral dissertation in August,
1955. The dissertation is available from University Micro-
films, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Pub. No. 16,926. An abstract
of the dissertation is in Dissertation Abstracts, Vol.
XVI, No. 13, p. 2553, available from the same source.

66. The Roman method was the revision of the gram-
mar of Emmanuel Alvarez by Father Horace Torsellini.
Either Alvarez or the Roman revision by Torsellini could
be used as each school decided. See Note 16.

67. The decree in regard to following the doc-
trine of St. Thomas is Decree 56 of the Fifth General
Congregation. Institutum Societatis Iesu (Florence, 1893),
II, pp. 281-282. It is incorporated in Rule 9, n. 2 of
the Rules of the Provincial, and in Rule 2 of the Rules
of the Professor of Scholastic Theology.



ERRATA

The Jesuit Ratio Studiorum of 1599

Page

ii Line 8: Insert the letter b where it is missing in the word biased.

35 Line 6: Change the word principle to the word principal.

67 Footnote: Should read: edition of the 1599 Ratio.

78 Rule 15, line 3: Should be the, not thee.

94 Rule 7, line 4: Should be practice, not practiced.

112 Rule 3: Frequent and spiritual contests (plural).

123 Line 2: The parenthesis should be closed after
pp. 103-112. It should be: pp. 103-112).

124 Note 43: Should read: Averroes was a Spanish-Arabian
philosopher.

130 Seventh line from bottom: Should read: The fact is, as
is.